A Comparison of Self-Rated and Female Partner-Rated Scales in the Assessment of Paternal Prenatal Depression

Community Ment Health J. 2016 Nov;52(8):983-988. doi: 10.1007/s10597-015-9931-z. Epub 2015 Aug 26.


Maternal depression has been widely studied but paternal depression is often overlooked. Depression in men is generally more difficult to detect as the symptoms are not apparent. Furthermore, Japanese couples tend to suppress their real emotions to avoid confrontation. We aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the K6, K10 and PHQ-9 in assessing the mental health status of men when used by their pregnant partners, as well as the prevalence of paternal prenatal depression in a Japanese study sample. A total of 136 couples participated in this study. The prevalence of paternal prenatal depression reported by the men themselves was higher compared to that reported by their female partners (K6, 10.3 %; K10, 6.6 %; PHQ-9, 3.7 % vs. K6-FP, 2.2 %; K10-FP, 1.5 %; PHQ-9-FP, 0 %, respectively). Mental health issues in men may not be accurately rated by their female partners, suggesting the importance of self-rating and direct consultation.

Keywords: K10; K6; PHQ-9; Partner-rating; Paternal depression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Fathers / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Report
  • Surveys and Questionnaires