Molecular and Biochemical Aspects of the Retina on Refraction

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015:134:249-67. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.06.013. Epub 2015 Jul 15.


Mutant mouse models with specific visual pathway defects offer an advantage to comprehensively investigate the role of specific pathways/neurons involved in refractive development. In this review, we will focus on recent studies using mouse models that have provided insight into retinal pathways and neurotransmitters controlling refractive development. Specifically, we will examine the contributions of rod and cone photoreceptors and the ON and OFF retinal pathways to visually driven eye growth with emphasis on dopaminergic mechanisms.

Keywords: Form deprivation; Mice; Myopia; OFF bipolar cells; ON bipolar cells; Photoreceptors; Refraction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Models, Animal
  • Mutation
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism
  • Refraction, Ocular / physiology*
  • Retina / growth & development
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Retinal Neurons / metabolism


  • Neurotransmitter Agents