Predictors of smoking reduction outcomes in a sample of 287 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017 Feb;267(1):63-72. doi: 10.1007/s00406-015-0636-7. Epub 2015 Aug 27.


Many studies have investigated whether a type of antipsychotics or type of adjuvant is associated with smoking reduction in patients with schizophrenia. However, there has been no study exploring a comprehensive range of factors related to smoking reduction in schizophrenia patients. We analyzed a dataset of 287 smoking patients with schizophrenia who participated in an 8-week open-label study with high- (n = 90) or low-dose nicotine dermal patches (n = 132) or bupropion (n = 65). A logistic regression model and a linear mixed model were used to explore factors associated with the outcomes of smoking cessation and reduction, i.e., the number of cigarettes smoked and the level of nicotine dependence. The total cessation rate was 6.3 % (18/287). There were no significant predictors of cessation. The time effect of reduction was significant during the program (p = 0.001). Type of antipsychotics (p = 0.018), readiness to quit (p = 0.014), baseline number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.001), and nicotine dependence level (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with smoking reduction. Patients on first-generation antipsychotics (n = 129) or clozapine (n = 70) reduced their smoking more than those on non-clozapine second-generation antipsychotics (n = 74). Patients in the preparation stage (n = 97) or in the contemplation (n = 70) reduced their smoking more than those in the precontemplation stage (n = 120). The mechanisms of tobacco addiction need to be better understood for further development of effective cessation programs in patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: Antipsychotics; Predictors of smoking reduction; Schizophrenia; Schizophrenia spectrum disorders; Smoking reduction.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Schizophrenia / drug therapy
  • Schizophrenia / epidemiology*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology*
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / therapy
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Taiwan
  • Treatment Outcome*
  • Young Adult


  • Antipsychotic Agents