Evidences regarding the efficacy of different antibiotic regimens proposed for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens have been reviewed. Available data in Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews have been collected. Several antibiotic regimens are proposed for treatment of MDR Gram-negative infections (defined as nonsusceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories). The most challenging issue is the treatment of carbapenem-resistant (CR) Gram-negative pathogens. A carbapenem plus either colistin or tigecycline was the most effective regimen for treatment of CR Gram-negative pathogens with low-level resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤ 8 mg/L). However, in high-level resistance (MIC > 8 mg/L), combination of colistin and tigecycline showed promising effect.
Keywords: Antibiotic; Gram-negative bacteria; infection; resistant.