Background: The contemporary associations of type 2 diabetes with a wide range of incident cardiovascular diseases have not been compared. Previous studies have focussed on myocardial infarction and stroke, and these conditions are the usual outcomes chosen in clinical trials in type 2 diabetes, but other diseases such as heart failure and angina are also major causes of morbidity in diabetes. We aimed to study associations between type 2 diabetes and 12 initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease.
Methods: We used linked electronic health records from 1997 to 2010 in the CALIBER (cardiovascular research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records) programme to investigate the absolute and relative risks associated with type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 1·92 million patients in England. We included patients aged 30 years and older who were free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804439.
Findings: We observed 113 638 first presentations of cardiovascular disease during a median follow-up of 5·5 years (IQR 2·1-10·1). 34 198 people had type 2 diabetes: 6137 experienced a first cardiovascular presentation, of which the most common were peripheral arterial disease (16·2%, n=992) and heart failure (14·1%, n=866). Type 2 diabetes was strongly positively associated with peripheral arterial disease (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio 2·98, 95% CI 2·76-3·22), ischaemic stroke (1·72, 1·52-1·95), stable angina (1·62, 1·49-1·77), heart failure (1·56, 1·45-1·69), and non-fatal myocardial infarction (1·54 1·42-1·67), but inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (0·46, 0·35-0·59) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (0·48, 0·26-0·89).
Interpretation: This study suggests that associations of type 2 diabetes vary with different incident cardiovascular diseases. These findings have implications for clinical risk assessment and choice of primary endpoint in trials on type 2 diabetes.
Funding: Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council.
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