Resistance to anticancer vaccination effect is controlled by a cancer cell-autonomous phenotype that disrupts immunogenic phagocytic removal

Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 29;6(29):26841-60. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.4754.


Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a well-established instigator of 'anti-cancer vaccination-effect (AVE)'. ICD has shown considerable preclinical promise, yet there remain subset of cancer patients that fail to respond to clinically-applied ICD inducers. Non-responsiveness to ICD inducers could be explained by the existence of cancer cell-autonomous, anti-AVE resistance mechanisms. However such resistance mechanisms remain poorly investigated. In this study, we have characterized for the first time, a naturally-occurring preclinical cancer model (AY27) that exhibits intrinsic anti-AVE resistance despite treatment with ICD inducers like mitoxantrone or hypericin-photodynamic therapy. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that this anti-AVE resistance was associated with a defect in exposing the important 'eat me' danger signal, surface-calreticulin (ecto-CRT/CALR). In an ICD setting, this defective ecto-CRT further correlated with severely reduced phagocytic clearance of AY27 cells as well as the failure of these cells to activate AVE. Defective ecto-CRT in response to ICD induction was a result of low endogenous CRT protein levels (i.e. CRTlow-phenotype) in AY27 cells. Exogenous reconstitution of ecto-rCRT (recombinant-CRT) improved the phagocytic removal of ICD inducer-treated AY27 cells, and importantly, significantly increased their AVE-activating ability. Moreover, we found that a subset of cancer patients of various cancer-types indeed possessed CALRlow or CRTlow-tumours. Remarkably, we found that tumoural CALRhigh-phenotype was predictive of positive clinical responses to therapy with ICD inducers (radiotherapy and paclitaxel) in lung and ovarian cancer patients, respectively. Furthermore, only in the ICD clinical setting, tumoural CALR levels positively correlated with the levels of various phagocytosis-associated genes relevant for phagosome maturation or processing. Thus, we reveal the existence of a cancer cell-autonomous, anti-AVE or anti-ICD resistance mechanism that has profound clinical implications for anticancer immunotherapy and cancer predictive biomarker analysis.

Keywords: calreticulin; immunogenic cell death; patient; predictive biomarker; prognostic biomarker.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthracenes
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Apoptosis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Calreticulin / chemistry
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Cell Death
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods
  • Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • Perylene / analogs & derivatives
  • Perylene / therapeutic use
  • Phagocytes / metabolism*
  • Phagocytosis
  • Phenotype
  • Photochemotherapy / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*


  • Anthracenes
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Calreticulin
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Perylene
  • hypericin
  • Mitoxantrone