Menopausal Symptoms and Their Management

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):497-515. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.001.


The menopause transition is associated with various symptoms, which can interact to produce morbidity. Vasomotor symptoms are the most commonly reported, but vaginal dryness/dyspareunia, sleep difficulties and adverse mood changes have all been shown to worsen as women approach menopause. For postmenopausal women changes in cognition are more likely to be related to aging and not to hormones. This article reviews the symptoms of hot flashes (vasomotor symptoms), vaginal dryness/dyspareunia, adverse mood, poor sleep/insomnia, and cognitive complaints, describing their epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. This article thus reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these common menopausal symptoms.

Keywords: Cognitive impairment; Depression; Dyspareunia; Insomnia; Menopause; Perimenopause; Vaginal dryness; Vasomotor symptoms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Aging / psychology
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Female
  • Hot Flashes / drug therapy
  • Hot Flashes / metabolism
  • Hot Flashes / psychology
  • Humans
  • Menopause / metabolism*
  • Menopause / psychology*