Bone Health and Osteoporosis

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):517-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.002.


Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

Keywords: Bone loss; Bone mineral density; Calcium; DXA; Fracture; Menopause; Osteoporosis; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause / physiology*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications*
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / etiology*
  • Risk Factors