Previous studies regarding the acute effects of coffee on glycaemic control have used a single large dose of coffee, typically containing the caffeine equivalent of 2-4 servings of coffee. This study investigates whether the acute effects of coffee are dose-dependent, starting with a single serving. A total of ten healthy overweight males participated in a two-part randomised double-blind cross-over study. In the first part, they ingested 2, 4 or 8 g instant decaffeinated coffee (DC) dissolved in 400 ml water with caffeine added in proportion to the DC (total 100, 200 or 400 mg caffeine) or control (400 ml water) all with 50 g glucose. In the second part, they ingested the same amounts of DC (2, 4, 8 g) or control, but with a standard 100 mg caffeine added to each. Capillary blood samples were taken every 15 min for 2 h after each drink and glucose and insulin levels were measured. Repeated measures ANOVA on glucose results found an effect when caffeine was varied in line with DC (P=0·008). Post hoc analysis revealed that both 2 and 4 g DC with varied caffeine content increased the glycaemic response v.
Control: There was no effect of escalating doses of DC when caffeine remained constant at 100 mg. These results demonstrate that one standard serving of coffee (2 g) is sufficient to affect glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the amount of caffeine found in one serving (100 mg) is sufficient to mask any potential beneficial effects of increasing other components. No dose-dependent effect was found.
Keywords: CGA chlorogenic acids; CQA caffeoylquinic acid; Caffeine; Coffee; DC decaffeinated coffee; Glucose; Human; Insulin; Metabolism; Postprandial metabolism; T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus; iAUC incremental AUC.