Background: Mucormycosis incidence is increasing and is associated with a high rate of mortality. Although lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B are the recommended first-line treatment, only one prospective trial in a limited number of patients has been performed to evaluate this regimen.
Methods: Patients with proven or probable mucormycosis were included between June 2007 and March 2011. Patients were scheduled to receive 10 mg/kg/day liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) monotherapy for 1 month and surgery was performed when appropriate. The primary outcome was response rate at week 4 or at the end of treatment (EOT) if before week 4, evaluated by an independent committee. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00467883.
Results: Forty patients were enrolled. Response was analysed in 33 patients at week 4. Most patients had a haematological malignancy as their primary underlying disease (53%). Seventy-one percent of patients underwent therapeutic surgery. The response rate at week 4 or at EOT was 36%, with 18% partial responses and 18% complete responses. The response rate at week 12 was 45%, with 13% partial responses and 32% complete responses. Overall mortality was 38% at week 12 and 53% at week 24. Serum creatinine doubled in 16 (40%) patients and returned to normal levels within 12 weeks in 10/16 (63%).
Conclusions: High-dose L-AMB for mucormycosis, in combination with surgery in 71% of cases, was associated with an overall response rate of 36% at week 4 and 45% at week 12 and creatinine level doubling in 40% of patients (transient in 63%). These results may serve as the basis for future clinical trials.
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