Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2015 Nov 28;386(10009):2145-91.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Global, Regional, and National Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for 306 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) for 188 Countries, 1990-2013: Quantifying the Epidemiological Transition

GBD 2013 DALYs and HALE CollaboratorsChristopher J L MurrayRyan M BarberKyle J ForemanAyse Abbasoglu OzgorenFoad Abd-AllahSemaw F AberaVictor AboyansJerry P AbrahamIbrahim AbubakarLaith J Abu-RaddadNiveen M Abu-RmeilehTom AchokiIlana N AckermanZanfina AdemiArsène K AdouJosé C AdsuarAshkan AfshinEmilie E AgardhSayed Saidul AlamDeena AlasfoorMohammed I AlbittarMiguel A AlegrettiZewdie A AlemuRafael Alfonso-CristanchoSamia AlhabibRaghib AliFrançois AllaPeter AllebeckMohammad A AlmazroaUbai AlsharifElena AlvarezNelson Alvis-GuzmanAzmeraw T AmareEmmanuel A AmehHeresh AminiWalid AmmarH Ross AndersonBenjamin O AndersonCarl Abelardo T AntonioPalwasha AnwariJohan ArnlövValentina S Arsic ArsenijevicAl ArtamanRana J AsgharReza AssadiLydia S AtkinsMarco A AvilaBaffour AwuahVictoria F BachmanAlaa BadawiMaria C BahitKalpana BalakrishnanAmitava BanerjeeSuzanne L Barker-ColloSimon BarqueraLars BarregardLope H BarreroArindam BasuSanjay BasuMohammed O BasulaimanJustin BeardsleyNeeraj BediEttore BeghiTolesa BekeleMichelle L BellCorina BenjetDerrick A BennettIsabela M BensenorHabib BenzianEduardo BernabéAmelia Bertozzi-VillaTariku J BeyeneNeeraj BhalaAshish BhallaZulfiqar A BhuttaKelly BienhoffBoris BikbovStan BiryukovJed D BloreChristopher D BlosserFiona M BlythMegan A BohenskyIan W BolligerBerrak Bora BaşaraNatan M BornsteinDipan BoseSoufiane BoufousRupert R A BourneLindsay N BoyersMichael BraininCarol E BrayneAlexandra BrazinovaNicholas J K BreitbordeHermann BrennerAdam D BriggsPeter M BrooksJonathan C BrownTraolach S BrughaRachelle BuchbinderGeoffrey C BuckleChristine M BudkeAnne BulchisAndrew G BullochIsmael R Campos-NonatoHélène CarabinJonathan R CarapetisRosario CárdenasDavid O CarpenterValeria CasoCarlos A Castañeda-OrjuelaRuben E CastroFerrán Catalá-LópezFiorella CavalleriAlanur ÇavlinVineet K ChadhaJung-Chen ChangFiona J CharlsonHonglei ChenWanqing ChenPeggy P ChiangOdgerel Chimed-OchirRajiv ChowdhuryHanne ChristensenCostas A ChristophiMassimo CirilloMatthew M CoatesLuc E CoffengMegan S CoggeshallValentina ColistroSamantha M ColquhounGraham S CookeCyrus CooperLeslie T CooperLuis M CoppolaMonica CortinovisMichael H CriquiJohn A CrumpLucia Cuevas-NasuHadi DanawiLalit DandonaRakhi DandonaEmily DansereauPaul I DarganGail DaveyAdrian DavisDragos V DavitoiuAnand DayamaDiego De LeoLouisa DegenhardtBorja Del Pozo-CruzRobert P DellavalleKebede DeribeSarah DerrettDon C Des JarlaisMuluken DessalegnSamath D DharmaratneMukesh K DheraniCesar Diaz-TornéDaniel DickerEric L DingKlara DokovaE Ray DorseyTim R DriscollLeilei DuanHerbert C DuberBeth E EbelKaren M EdmondYousef M ElshrekMatthias EndresSergey P ErmakovHolly E ErskineBabak EshratiAlireza EsteghamatiKara EstepEmerito Jose A FaraonFarshad FarzadfarDerek F FayValery L FeiginDavid T FelsonSeyed-Mohammad FereshtehnejadJefferson G FernandesAlize J FerrariChristina FitzmauriceAbraham D FlaxmanThomas D FlemingNataliya FoigtMohammad H ForouzanfarF Gerry R FowkesUrbano Fra PaleoRichard C FranklinThomas FürstBelinda GabbeLynne GaffikinFortuné G GankpéJohanna M GeleijnseBradford D GessnerPeter GethingKatherine B GibneyMaurice GiroudGiorgia GiussaniHector Gomez DantesPhilimon GonaDiego González-MedinaRichard A GosselinCarolyn C GotayAtsushi GotoHebe N GoudaNicholas GraetzHarish C GugnaniRahul GuptaRajeev GuptaReyna A GutiérrezJuanita HaagsmaNima Hafezi-NejadHolly HaganYara A HalasaRandah R HamadehHannah HamavidMouhanad HammamiJamie HancockGraeme J HankeyGillian M HansenYuantao HaoHilda L HarbJosep Maria HaroRasmus HavmoellerSimon I HayRoderick J HayIleana B Heredia-PiKyle R HeutonPouria HeydarpourHideki HigashiMartha HijarHans W HoekHoward J HoffmanH Dean HosgoodMazeda HossainPeter J HotezDamian G HoyMohamed HsairiGuoqing HuCheng HuangJohn J HuangAbdullatif HusseiniChantal HuynhMarissa L IannaroneKim M IburgKaire InnosManami InoueFarhad IslamiKathryn H JacobsenDeborah L JarvisSimerjot K JassalSun Ha JeePanniyammakal JeemonPaul N JensenVivekanand JhaGuohong JiangYing JiangJost B JonasKnud JuelHaidong KanAndré KarchCorine K KaremaChante KarimkhaniGanesan KarthikeyanNicholas J KassebaumAnil KaulNorito KawakamiKonstantin KazanjanAndrew H KempAndre P KengneAndre KerenYousef S KhaderShams Eldin A KhalifaEjaz A KhanGulfaraz KhanYoung-Ho KhangChristian KielingDaniel KimSungroul KimYunjin KimYohannes KinfuJonas M KingeMiia KivipeltoLuke D KnibbsAnn Kristin KnudsenYoshihiro KokuboSoewarta KosenSanjay KrishnaswamiBarthelemy Kuate DefoBurcu Kucuk BicerErnst J KuipersChanda KulkarniVeena S KulkarniG Anil KumarHmwe H KyuTaavi LaiRatilal LallooTea LallukkaHilton LamQing LanVan C LansinghAnders LarssonAlicia E B LawrynowiczJanet L LeasherJames LeighRicky LeungCarly E LevitzBin LiYichong LiYongmei LiStephen S LimMaggie LindSteven E LipshultzShiwei LiuYang LiuBelinda K LloydKatherine T LofgrenGiancarlo LogroscinoKatharine J LookerJoannie Lortet-TieulentPaulo A LotufoRafael LozanoRobyn M LucasRaimundas LuneviciusRonan A LyonsStefan MaMichael F MacintyreMark T MackayMarek MajdanReza MalekzadehWagner MarcenesDavid J MargolisChristopher MargonoMelvin B MarzanJoseph R MasciMohammad T MashalRichard MatzopoulosBongani M MayosiTasara T MazorodzeNeil W McgillJohn J McgrathMartin MckeeAbigail MclainPeter A MeaneyCatalina MedinaMan Mohan MehndirattaWubegzier MekonnenYohannes A MelakuMichele MeltzerZiad A MemishGeorge A MensahAtte MeretojaFrancis A MhimbiraRenata MichaTed R MillerEdward J MillsPhilip B MitchellCharles N MockNorlinah Mohamed IbrahimKarzan A MohammadAli H MokdadGlen L D MolaLorenzo MonastaJulio C Montañez HernandezMarcella MonticoThomas J MontineMeghan D MooneyAmi R MooreMaziar Moradi-LakehAndrew E MoranRintaro MoriJoanna MoschandreasWilkister N MoturiMadeline L MoyerDariush MozaffarianWilliam T MsemburiUlrich O MuellerMitsuru MukaigawaraErin C MullanyMichele E MurdochJoseph MurrayKinnari S MurthyMohsen NaghaviAliya NaheedKovin S NaidooLuigi NaldiDevina NandVinay NangiaK M Venkat NarayanChakib NejjariSudan P NeupaneCharles R NewtonMarie NgFrida N NgalesoniGrant NguyenMuhammad I NisarSandra NolteOle F NorheimRosana E NormanBo NorrvingLuke NyakarahukaIn-Hwan OhTakayoshi OhkuboSummer L OhnoBolajoko O OlusanyaJohn Nelson OpioKatrina OrtbladAlberto OrtizAmanda W PainJeyaraj D PandianCarlo Irwin A PaneloChristina PapachristouEun-Kee ParkJae-Hyun ParkScott B PattenGeorge C PattonVinod K PaulBoris I PavlinNeil PearceDavid M PereiraRogelio Perez-PadillaFernando Perez-RuizNorberto PericoAslam PervaizKonrad PesudovsCarrie B PetersonMax PetzoldMichael R PhillipsBryan K PhillipsDavid E PhillipsFrédéric B PielDietrich PlassDan PoenaruSuzanne PolinderDaniel PopeSvetlana PopovaRichie G PoultonFarshad PourmalekDorairaj PrabhakaranNoela M PrasadRachel L PullanDima M QatoD Alex QuistbergAnwar RafayKazem RahimiSajjad U RahmanMurugesan RajuSaleem M RanaHomie RazaviK Srinath ReddyAmany RefaatGiuseppe RemuzziSerge ResnikoffAntonio L RibeiroLee RichardsonJan Hendrik RichardusD Allen RobertsDavid Rojas-RuedaLuca RonfaniGregory A RothDietrich RothenbacherDavid H RothsteinJane T RowleyNobhojit RoyGeorge M RuhagoMohammad Y SaeediSukanta SahaMohammad Ali SahraianUchechukwu K A SampsonJuan R SanabriaLogan SandarItamar S SantosMaheswar SatpathyMonika SawhneyPeter ScarboroughIone J SchneiderBen SchöttkerAustin E SchumacherDavid C SchwebelJames G ScottSoraya SeedatSadaf G SepanlouPeter T SerinaEdson E Servan-MoriKatya A ShackelfordAmira ShaheenSaeid ShahrazTeresa Shamah LevySiyi ShangguanJun SheSara SheikhbahaeiPeilin ShiKenji ShibuyaYukito ShinoharaRahman ShiriKawkab ShishaniIvy ShiueMark G ShrimeInga D SigfusdottirDonald H SilberbergEdgar P SimardShireen SindiAbhishek SinghJasvinder A SinghLavanya SinghVegard SkirbekkErica Leigh SlepakKaren SliwaSamir SonejiKjetil SøreideSergey SoshnikovLuciano A SposatoChandrashekhar T SreeramareddyJeffrey D StanawayVasiliki StathopoulouDan J SteinMurray B SteinCaitlyn SteinerTimothy J SteinerAntony StevensAndrea StewartLars J StovnerKonstantinos StroumpoulisBruno F SunguyaSoumya SwaminathanMamta SwaroopBryan L SykesKaren M TabbKen TakahashiNikhil TandonDavid TanneMarcel TannerMohammad TavakkoliHugh R TaylorBraden J Te AoFabrizio TediosiAwoke M TemesgenTara TemplinMargreet Ten HaveEric Y TenkorangAbdullah S TerkawiBlake ThomsonAndrew L Thorne-LymanAmanda G ThriftGeorge D ThurstonTaavi TillmannMarcello TonelliFotis TopouzisHideaki ToyoshimaJefferson TraebertBach X TranMatias TrilliniThomas TruelsenMiltiadis TsilimbarisEmin M TuzcuUche S UchenduKingsley N UkwajaEduardo A UndurragaSelen B UzunWim H Van BrakelSteven Van De VijverCoen H van GoolJim Van OsTommi J VasankariN VenketasubramanianFrancesco S ViolanteVasiliy V VlassovStein Emil VollsetGregory R WagnerJoseph WagnerStephen G WallerXia WanHaidong WangJianli WangLinhong WangTati S WarouwScott WeichenthalElisabete WeiderpassRobert G WeintraubWang WenzhiAndrea WerdeckerRonny WestermanHarvey A WhitefordJames D WilkinsonThomas N WilliamsCharles D WolfeTimothy M WolockAnthony D WoolfSarah WulfBrittany WurtzGelin XuLijing L YanYuichiro YanoPengpeng YeGökalp K YentürPaul YipNaohiro YonemotoSeok-Jun YoonMustafa Z YounisChuanhua YuMaysaa E ZakiYong ZhaoYingfeng ZhengDavid ZoniesXiaonong ZouJoshua A SalomonAlan D LopezTheo Vos
Free PMC article

Global, Regional, and National Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for 306 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) for 188 Countries, 1990-2013: Quantifying the Epidemiological Transition

GBD 2013 DALYs and HALE Collaborators et al. Lancet. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.

Methods: We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.

Findings: Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.

Interpretation: Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition--in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden--is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Survivorship curve stratified by disability weight in 2013
Health survivorship function showing the fraction of a birth cohort alive at each age exposed to 2013 death rates, with the fraction of time spent at each age by the birth cohort decomposed by level of disability weight. Countries are grouped by socidemographic status into quintiles, including the lowest quintile (A), the three middle quintiles (B), and the highest quintile (C). DW=disability weight.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Total DALYs, crude DALY rates, and age-standardised DALY rates from 1990 to 2013
Changes in global DALYs caused by communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, non-communicable diseases, and injuries shown in terms of numbers of DALYs (A), DALY rates per 100 000 people (B), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people (C). The difference in trends between A and B is caused by population growth and the difference between B and C because of changes in the percentage distribution of the population by age. Shaded areas show 95% uncertainty intervals. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Change in DALYs for GBD level 3 causes
Increasing and decreasing global DALYs for GBD level 3 causes from 1990 to 2005 (A) and 2005 to 2013 (B). Within each tree map, the size of the rectangle for each cause is proportional to the magnitude of the decrease or increase in DALYs for each cause. Dark shading show statistically significant changes and light shading shows changes that are not significant. Unmarked boxes represent causes for which the decrease or increase was less than 1 000 000 DALYs. Table 1 and the appendix (p 4) contains numerical values for each cause. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years. GBD=Global Burden of Disease. Diarrhoea=diarrhoeal diseases. LRI=lower respiratory infections. NN enceph=neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. NN haemol=haemolytic disease and other neonatal jaundice. Other NN=other neonatal disorders. NN preterm=preterm birth complications. Nematode=intestinal nematode infections. Iron=iron-deficiency anaemia. PEM=protein-energy malnutrition. STD=sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV. TB=tuberculosis. Whooping=whooping cough. NN sepsis=neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections. Congenital=congenital anomalies. RHD=rheumatic heart disease. Oral=oral disorders. Sense=sense organ diseases. Cirr alc=cirrhosis due to alcohol use. Cirr hep C=cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. CKD=chronic kidney disease. CMP=cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. HTN HD=hypertensive heart disease. IHD=ischaemic heart disease. Stroke=cerebrovascular disease. Diabetes=diabetes mellitus. Alcohol=alcohol use disorders. Anxiety=anxiety disorders. Bipolar=bipolar disorder. Drugs=drug use disorders. Depression=depressive disorders. Other MSK=other musculoskeletal disorders. Back and neck=low back and neck pain. Breast C=breast cancer. Colorectal C=colon and rectum cancer. Liver C=liver cancer. Lung C=tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer. Alzheimer’s=Alzheimer disease and other dementias. COPD=chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Skin=skin and subcutaneous diseases. Fire=fire, heat, and hot substances. Mech=exposure to mechanical forces. War=collective violence and legal intervention. Violence=interpersonal violence. Road inj=road injuries. Haemog=haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias. ILD=interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Disaster=exposure to forces of nature.
Figure 4
Figure 4. 25 most common GBD level 3 causes of global DALYs for both sexes combined, 1990, 2005, and 2013, with age-standardised median percentage change
Ranks are based on the number of DALYs. 95% UIs for mean rank are from 1000 draws of DALYs. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders causes are shown in red, non-communicable causes in blue, and injuries in green. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years. GBD=Global Burden of Disease. UI=uncertainty interval. COPD=chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Figure 5
Figure 5. YLL and YLD cause composition of DALY rates by sociodemographic status vigintile
The epidemiological transition based on predicted YLL and YLD rates per 100 000 people as a function of the level of sociodemographic status by vigintile and broken down into GBD level 2 causes. These predicted levels control for variation explained by year and country. YLL= years of life lost. YLD=years lived with disability. GBD=Global Burden of Disease.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Ten most common GBD level 3 causes of DALYs for 188 countries in 2013
The 15 most common global causes of DALYs are coloured. Alcohol=alcohol use disorders. Alzheimer=Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Anxiety=anxiety disorders. Back and neck=low back and neck pain. Cirr Hep C=cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. CKD=chronic kidney disease. CMP=cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. Colorect C=colon and rectum cancer. Congenital=congenital disorders. COPD=chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Depression=depressive disorders. Diabetes=diabetes mellitus. Diarrhoea=diarrhoeal diseases. Drown=drowning. Drugs=drug use disorders. F Body=foreign body. Haemog=haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias. HTN HD=hypertensive heart disease. IHD=ischaemic heart disease. Iron=iron-deficiency anaemia. Liver C=liver cancer. LRI=lower respiratory infections. Lung C=tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer. Nematode=intestinal nematode infections. NN enceph=neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. NN preterm=preterm birth complications. NN sepsis=neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections. Other cardio=other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. Other MSK=other musculoskeletal disorders. Other NN=other neonatal disorders. PEM=protein-energy malnutrition. Road inj=road injuries. Sense=sense organ diseases. Skin=skin and subcutaneous diseases. STD=sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV. Stomach C=stomach cancer. Stroke=cerebrovascular disease. TB=tuberculosis. Violence=interpersonal violence. War=collective violence and legal intervention. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years. GBD=Global Burden of Disease.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Ten most common GBD level 3 causes of DALYs for 188 countries in 2013
The 15 most common global causes of DALYs are coloured. Alcohol=alcohol use disorders. Alzheimer=Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Anxiety=anxiety disorders. Back and neck=low back and neck pain. Cirr Hep C=cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. CKD=chronic kidney disease. CMP=cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. Colorect C=colon and rectum cancer. Congenital=congenital disorders. COPD=chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Depression=depressive disorders. Diabetes=diabetes mellitus. Diarrhoea=diarrhoeal diseases. Drown=drowning. Drugs=drug use disorders. F Body=foreign body. Haemog=haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias. HTN HD=hypertensive heart disease. IHD=ischaemic heart disease. Iron=iron-deficiency anaemia. Liver C=liver cancer. LRI=lower respiratory infections. Lung C=tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer. Nematode=intestinal nematode infections. NN enceph=neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. NN preterm=preterm birth complications. NN sepsis=neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections. Other cardio=other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. Other MSK=other musculoskeletal disorders. Other NN=other neonatal disorders. PEM=protein-energy malnutrition. Road inj=road injuries. Sense=sense organ diseases. Skin=skin and subcutaneous diseases. STD=sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV. Stomach C=stomach cancer. Stroke=cerebrovascular disease. TB=tuberculosis. Violence=interpersonal violence. War=collective violence and legal intervention. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years. GBD=Global Burden of Disease.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Ten most common GBD level 3 causes of DALYs for 188 countries in 2013
The 15 most common global causes of DALYs are coloured. Alcohol=alcohol use disorders. Alzheimer=Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Anxiety=anxiety disorders. Back and neck=low back and neck pain. Cirr Hep C=cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. CKD=chronic kidney disease. CMP=cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. Colorect C=colon and rectum cancer. Congenital=congenital disorders. COPD=chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Depression=depressive disorders. Diabetes=diabetes mellitus. Diarrhoea=diarrhoeal diseases. Drown=drowning. Drugs=drug use disorders. F Body=foreign body. Haemog=haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias. HTN HD=hypertensive heart disease. IHD=ischaemic heart disease. Iron=iron-deficiency anaemia. Liver C=liver cancer. LRI=lower respiratory infections. Lung C=tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer. Nematode=intestinal nematode infections. NN enceph=neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. NN preterm=preterm birth complications. NN sepsis=neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections. Other cardio=other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. Other MSK=other musculoskeletal disorders. Other NN=other neonatal disorders. PEM=protein-energy malnutrition. Road inj=road injuries. Sense=sense organ diseases. Skin=skin and subcutaneous diseases. STD=sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV. Stomach C=stomach cancer. Stroke=cerebrovascular disease. TB=tuberculosis. Violence=interpersonal violence. War=collective violence and legal intervention. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years. GBD=Global Burden of Disease.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Ten most common GBD level 3 causes of DALYs for 188 countries in 2013
The 15 most common global causes of DALYs are coloured. Alcohol=alcohol use disorders. Alzheimer=Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Anxiety=anxiety disorders. Back and neck=low back and neck pain. Cirr Hep C=cirrhosis due to hepatitis C. CKD=chronic kidney disease. CMP=cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. Colorect C=colon and rectum cancer. Congenital=congenital disorders. COPD=chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Depression=depressive disorders. Diabetes=diabetes mellitus. Diarrhoea=diarrhoeal diseases. Drown=drowning. Drugs=drug use disorders. F Body=foreign body. Haemog=haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias. HTN HD=hypertensive heart disease. IHD=ischaemic heart disease. Iron=iron-deficiency anaemia. Liver C=liver cancer. LRI=lower respiratory infections. Lung C=tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer. Nematode=intestinal nematode infections. NN enceph=neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. NN preterm=preterm birth complications. NN sepsis=neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections. Other cardio=other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. Other MSK=other musculoskeletal disorders. Other NN=other neonatal disorders. PEM=protein-energy malnutrition. Road inj=road injuries. Sense=sense organ diseases. Skin=skin and subcutaneous diseases. STD=sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV. Stomach C=stomach cancer. Stroke=cerebrovascular disease. TB=tuberculosis. Violence=interpersonal violence. War=collective violence and legal intervention. DALY=disability-adjusted life-years. GBD=Global Burden of Disease.

Comment in

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 456 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

Feedback