Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a baseline, an interim or a post-chemoradiation (CTRT) 18-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) studies could provide information on pathologic response to CTRT and overall survival (OS).
Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, fit for trimodality therapy were prospectively enrolled. Most were men (93.5%), and had a stage III cancer (74.2%). Chemotherapy consisted of oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil (45.2%) and taxane/5-fluorouracil (54.8%). All patients underwent a baseline, an interim (performed 12 ± 2 days after the onset of CTRT) and a post-CTRT 18F-FDG PET/CT study. The 18F-FDG PET/CT variables evaluated were at baseline, interim and post-CTRT studies maximum standardised uptake value (SUV max) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Clinical and 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters were correlated with pathologic complete response (pathCR) and OS.
Results: Among the 31 patients studied, 61.3% achieved a clinical complete response (cCR) and 87.1% had surgery. The median OS was 35.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.9-NA). PathCR rate was 22.2%. There was only a marginal association between cCR and pathCR (p = 0.06). None of the other variables was predictive of pathCR. There was association between OS and baseline TLG (p = 0.03) at the optimal cutoff TLG value of 75.15. Additionally, TLG and ΔTLG post-CTRT were also associated with OS (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively).
Conclusion: None of the PET parameters is predictive of pathCR but TLG at baseline and post-CTRT are prognostic of OS.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833625.
Keywords: 18F-FDG PET/CT; Chemoradiation; Early response evaluation; Gastroesophageal cancer; Pathologic response.
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