Ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis stem ameliorates hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and suppresses inflammatory response in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats

Phytomedicine. 2015 Sep 15;22(10):952-60. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.06.014. Epub 2015 Jul 15.


Background: Cissus quadrangularis is a plant with great medicinal value and different parts of the plant is traditionally used for the treatment of skin infections, constipation, piles, anaemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, burns and wounds. The stems and leaves of Cissus quadrangularis has been traditionally consumed as a vegetable.

Objective: The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis stem (CQSF) on hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus.

Materials and methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 110 mg/kg body weight nicotinamide 15 min prior to the injection of 45 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were administered with a daily oral dose of 100 mg/kg CQSF for 60 days after diabetes induction.

Results: Diabetic control rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in blood glucose, HbA1c, liver toxicity markers, inflammatory markers and lipid peroxidation products and reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB in adipose tissue were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in diabetic group. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit level was greater in diabetic rats. CQSF administration significantly reversed these alterations. Histopathological alterations of liver and pancreas were also restored by CQSF treatment. The results were compared with the standard oral hypoglycaemic drug metformin. In addition, the ESI-MS and GC-MS analysis of CQSF confirmed the presence of quercetin and phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)- respectively.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that CQSF exerts antidiabetic activity by potentiating the antioxidant defense system and suppressing inflammatory responses.

Keywords: Antioxidants; Diabetes mellitus; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Quercetin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cissus / chemistry*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Insulin / blood
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Niacinamide
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Stems / chemistry
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Streptozocin


  • Antioxidants
  • Blood Glucose
  • Cytokines
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Niacinamide
  • Streptozocin