Vitamin D deficiency and the risk of anemia: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Ren Fail. 2015 Jul;37(6):929-34. doi: 10.3109/0886022X.2015.1052979. Epub 2015 Sep 2.


Aims: Anemia and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are both very important health issues, recent accumulating evidence shows that VDD is prevalent in individuals with anemia. This meta-analysis aimed to detect a relationship between VDD and anemia.

Methods: We identified eligible studies by searching the Pub Med, Embase and Cochrane Library before October 2014. Quality assessments were performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Cochran's Q test and source of heterogeneity was detected by subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis.

Results: A total of seven studies involving 5183 participants were included in the meta-analysis. VDD was associated with an increased incidence of anemia (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.47-3.44), with significant evidence of heterogeneity among these studies (p for heterogeneity < 0.001, I(2) = 84.0%). The subgroup and sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the results and no publication bias was detected.

Conclusion: Our outcomes showed that VDD increased the risk of developing anemia. More researches are warranted to clarify an understanding of the association between VDD and risk of anemia.

Keywords: Anemia; meta-analysis; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Anemia / diagnosis*
  • Anemia / epidemiology*
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diagnosis*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*