Printed paper sensors for serum lactate dehydrogenase using pullulan-based inks to immobilize reagents

Anal Chem. 2015 Sep 15;87(18):9288-93. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b01923. Epub 2015 Sep 2.


In this study, a paper-based point-of-care (POC) colorimetric biosensor was developed for the detection of lactate dehydrogenase in serum using a nonporous, oxygen impermeable reversibly gelling polysaccharide material based on pullulan. The pullulan could be printed onto paper surfaces along with all required assay reagents, providing a means for high-stability immobilization of all reagents on paper. Serum containing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was directly spotted on to the pullulan-coated bioactive paper and provided quantitative colorimetric data that was comparable to that obtained with a conventional plate-reader method. The paper strip was found to be highly stable and could be stored at 4 °C for at least 10 weeks with no loss in performance, as compared to a complete loss in performance within 1 day when the reagents were printed without the stabilizing polysaccharide. The ease of fabrication coupled with the high stability of the printed reagents provides a facile platform for easily manufactured POC sensors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Colorimetry
  • Glucans / chemistry*
  • Indicators and Reagents / chemistry
  • Ink*
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood*
  • Paper*
  • Point-of-Care Systems
  • Printing*


  • Glucans
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • pullulan
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase