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. 2015 Sep 1;10:28685.
doi: 10.3402/ljm.v10.28685. eCollection 2015.

Experimental Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Clove Oil in Mice

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Free PMC article

Experimental Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Clove Oil in Mice

Yousef A Taher et al. Libyan J Med. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.

Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.

Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs.

Results: In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01) compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01) in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.). Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05) compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01). In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05) and 70.4% (p<0.01) inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001), and time of peak effects was 30-180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001). The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol.

Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.

Keywords: Eugenia caryophyllata; anti-inflammatory; antinociceptive; antipyretic; clove oil; eugenol; mice.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Effects of i.p. administration of clove oil and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) on mouse paw edema 3 h after injection of carrageenan. Mean±SEM of eight individual measurements of increase in paw thickness is presented (n=8 each mouse group). aAdministered 30 min before carrageenan injection. ## p<0.01 vs. pre-carrageenan injection (paired t-test), p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs. control mice (ANOVA followed by Tukey's test).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Effect of clove oil on the number of writhing induced by acetic acid injection in mice. Control mice received normal saline and positive control group was treated with aspirin (100 mg/kg). Mean±SEM of eight individual readings is presented (n=8 each group). aAdministered 0.5 h before acetic acid injection (0.6% v/v, 10 ml/kg, i.p.). *p<0.01 vs. control group. # p<0.05 vs. aspirin-treated mice.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
The effect of clove oil and morphine (5 mg/kg) against thermally induced pain by the hot-plate method in mice. Mean±SEM of eight individual readings is presented (n=8 each group). aAdministered 0.5 h before thermal stimulus at 55±1°C. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs. control mice. # p<0.05 vs. morphine-treated mice.

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