Effect of Enamel Matrix Derivative Liquid on Osteoblast and Periodontal Ligament Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

J Periodontol. 2016 Jan;87(1):91-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.150389. Epub 2015 Sep 3.


Background: Enamel matrix derivatives (EMDs) have been used clinically for more than a decade for the regeneration of periodontal tissues. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect on cell growth of EMDs in a gel carrier in comparison to EMDs in a liquid carrier. EMDs in a liquid carrier have been shown to adsorb better to bone graft materials.

Methods: Primary human osteoblasts and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were exposed to EMDs in both gel and liquid carriers and compared for their ability to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Alizarin red staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of genes encoding collagen 1, osteocalcin, and runt-related transcription factor 2, as well as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and interleukin (IL)-1β, were assessed.

Results: EMDs in both carriers significantly increased cell proliferation of both osteoblasts and PDL cells in a similar manner. Both formulations also significantly upregulated the expression of genes encoding BMP2 and TGF-β1 as well as decreased the expression of IL-1β. EMDs in the liquid carrier further retained similar differentiation potential of both osteoblasts and PDL cells by demonstrating increased collagen and osteocalcin gene expression and significantly higher alizarin red staining.

Conclusions: The results from the present study indicate that the new formulation of EMDs in a liquid carrier is equally as potent as EMDs in a gel carrier in inducing osteoblast and PDL activity. Future study combining EMDs in a liquid carrier with bone grafting materials is required to further evaluate its potential for combination therapies.

Keywords: Bone transplantation; enamel matrix proteins; gene expression; regeneration, periodontal guided tissue.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Cell Proliferation*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dental Enamel
  • Dental Enamel Proteins
  • Humans
  • Osteoblasts*
  • Periodontal Ligament


  • Dental Enamel Proteins
  • Alkaline Phosphatase