Quality of Life in Patients Suffering from Active Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The EQUADE Study

Ophthalmologica. 2015;234(3):151-9. doi: 10.1159/000433448. Epub 2015 Aug 25.


Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of visual loss in the elderly population. With the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, the visual outcomes of exudative AMD patients have been improved. This study was aimed at assessing the quality of life (QoL) of exudative AMD patients treated with ranibizumab and at determining its drivers in a real-life setting.

Methods: We performed a national, cross-sectional, observational survey based on questionnaires sent to members of French associations relative to AMD between December 2012 and March 2013. Patients suffering from exudative AMD with at least one intravitreal injection of ranibizumab within the last 6 months were included. Demographics, AMD characteristics, visual acuity (VA) and past and ongoing treatments were collected. The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was self-administered. A multivariate model was used to identify QoL drivers.

Results: 416 questionnaires fulfilled the complete criteria for both QoL and cost analyses. The mean age of exudative AMD patients was 78.0 years and bilateral involvement was reported in 60.4%. The overall mean QoL score was 53.4. Mental health, driving and role difficulties were the most widely affected domains. After bivariate analyses, long-term illness status, worse VA and higher number of unpaid aids were associated with worse QoL, with odds ratios of 2.4, 5.2 and 11.6, respectively. The mean cost per year and per patient was 1,741 EUR. The main components of costs were aids and services and the purchase of visual equipment.

Conclusions: The main predictors of QoL in exudative AMD patients treated with ranibizumab are VA outcomes, home healthcare and social services provided to the patients.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / economics
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Cost of Illness
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Exudates and Transudates
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Ranibizumab / economics
  • Ranibizumab / therapeutic use
  • Sickness Impact Profile
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / drug therapy
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / physiopathology
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / psychology*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Ranibizumab