Hypoxia-induced carbonic anhydrase IX facilitates lactate flux in human breast cancer cells by non-catalytic function

Sci Rep. 2015 Sep 4;5:13605. doi: 10.1038/srep13605.


The most aggressive tumour cells, which often reside in hypoxic environments, rely on glycolysis for energy production. Thereby they release vast amounts of lactate and protons via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which exacerbates extracellular acidification and supports the formation of a hostile environment. We have studied the mechanisms of regulated lactate transport in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Under hypoxia, expression of MCT1 and MCT4 remained unchanged, while expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) was greatly enhanced. Our results show that CAIX augments MCT1 transport activity by a non-catalytic interaction. Mutation studies in Xenopus oocytes indicate that CAIX, via its intramolecular H(+)-shuttle His200, functions as a "proton-collecting/distributing antenna" to facilitate rapid lactate flux via MCT1. Knockdown of CAIX significantly reduced proliferation of cancer cells, suggesting that rapid efflux of lactate and H(+), as enhanced by CAIX, contributes to cancer cell survival under hypoxic conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Carbonic Anhydrase IX
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism*
  • Catalysis
  • Cell Hypoxia
  • Cell Survival
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Humans
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism*
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Oxygen / metabolism*


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Lactic Acid
  • CA9 protein, human
  • Carbonic Anhydrase IX
  • Carbonic Anhydrases
  • Oxygen