Plant apyrases are nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) and have been implicated in an array of functions within the plant including the regulation of extracellular ATP. Arabidopsis encodes a family of seven membrane bound apyrases (AtAPY1-7) that comprise three distinct clades, all of which contain the five conserved apyrase domains. With the exception of AtAPY1 and AtAPY2, the biochemical and the sub-cellular characterization of the other members are currently unavailable. In this research, we have shown all seven Arabidopsis apyrases localize to internal membranes comprising the cis-Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosome, indicating an endo-apyrase classification for the entire family. In addition, all members, with the exception of AtAPY7, can function as endo-apyrases by complementing a yeast double mutant (Δynd1Δgda1) which lacks apyrase activity. Interestingly, complementation of the mutant yeast using well characterized human apyrases could only be accomplished by using a functional ER endo-apyrase (NTPDase6), but not the ecto-apyrase (NTPDase1). Furthermore, the substrate specificity analysis for the Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1-6 indicated that each member has a distinct set of preferred substrates covering various NDPs (nucleoside diphosphates) and NTPs. Combining the biochemical analysis and sub-cellular localization of the Arabidopsis apyrases family, the data suggest their possible roles in regulating endomembrane NDP/NMP (nucleoside monophosphate) homoeostasis.
Keywords: Arabidopsis apyrase; endomembrane; human; yeast.
© 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.