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Review
, 88 (3), 227-33
eCollection

Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review

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Review

Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review

Jeanette M Tetrault et al. Yale J Biol Med.

Abstract

Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic.

Keywords: opioid agonist treatment; opioid use disorder; prescription opioid use disorder; substance use disorder.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2013. Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Image courtesy of SAMHSA.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Source Where Pain Relievers Were Obtained for Most Recent Nonmedical Use among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older: 2012-2013. 1Other includes the sources "Wrote Fake Prescription," "Stole from Doctor's Office/Clinic/Hospital/ Pharmacy," and "Some Other Way." Note: The percentages do not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Image courtesy of SAMHSA.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Prescription Opioid Sales, Deaths and Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions. Image courtesy of SAMHSA.

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