First case of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi in a patient with liver cirrhosis: a case report and literature review

Clin J Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct;8(5):306-17. doi: 10.1007/s12328-015-0600-0. Epub 2015 Sep 5.


Patients with liver cirrhosis are known to be immunocompromised hosts due to the dysfunction of the cellular and humoral immune systems, allowing easier bacterial translocation from the intestine to the systemic circulation via the portal vein. Sepsis can often be seen in these patients; however, approximately 10 % of patients show negative results with the standard culture period (3-4 days) and their pathogens remain undiagnosed. Here we report the first case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with bacteremia due to Helicobacter cinaedi after gastrointestinal symptoms and review 62 cases of H. cinaedi infection in patients with other diseases. The patient showed positive results for H. cinaedi after 10 days of culture. Administration of a carbapenem was effective and clinical symptoms recovered 20 days after admission. H. cinaedi is an enterohepatic bacterial species that causes bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Due to the difficulty of detection, few cases have been reported to date and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case of bacteremia due to H. cinaedi infection in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Since bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis can result in fatality, we recommend vigilance for H. cinaedi infection, longer periods of blood culture, polymerase chain reaction analysis, and empirical antibiotic therapy to help improve prognosis.

Keywords: Bacteremia; Helicobacter cinaedi; Liver cirrhosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteremia / drug therapy
  • Bacteremia / microbiology*
  • Carbapenems / therapeutic use
  • Helicobacter / isolation & purification*
  • Helicobacter Infections / diagnosis*
  • Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host*
  • Liver Cirrhosis / immunology*
  • Male


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Carbapenems