Canine leishmaniosis - an emerging disease

Ann Parasitol. 2015;61(2):69-76.


Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an invasive disease of dogs, caused by Leishmania spp. parasites transmitted by the bite of an infected phlebotomine sand fly. CanL is declared an important disease by World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Due to its zoonotic potential is of a great importance the prevention of this disease in non endemic areas. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic disease in more than 70 countries and is a common disease in Mediterranean region. Recently, many cases have been reported in non endemic areas, like United Kingdom, Germany and Poland as well, where this disease is considered exotic. The aim of this article is to summarize shortly canine leishmaniosis, it's transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics procedure, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Increasing knowledge about this disease can be of a great use for veterinary surgeons from countries where CanL is an emerging disease. Multiple clinical presentations of CanL should aware clinicians to include leishmaniosis in the differential diagnosis of most clinical cases. Unfortunately, even if dogs recover clinically after treatment, complete elimination of Leishmania spp. is rarely achieved, and they remain infected and may relapse.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / parasitology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / veterinary*
  • Dog Diseases / parasitology*
  • Dogs
  • Leishmaniasis / parasitology
  • Leishmaniasis / veterinary*