Fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in sewage samples

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Oct;407(26):8137-50. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8990-x. Epub 2015 Sep 7.


A fast and sensitive sample preparation strategy using fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed to analyse benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds in aqueous samples. Benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds are a group of compounds added to sunscreens and other personal care products which may present detrimental effects to aquatic ecosystems. Fabric phase sorptive extraction is a novel solvent minimized sample preparation approach that integrates the advantages of sol-gel derived hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite sorbents and the flexible, permeable and hydrophobic surface chemistry of polyester fabric. It is a highly sensitive, fast, efficient and inexpensive device that can be reused and does not suffer from coating damage, unlike SPME fibres or stir bars. In this paper, we optimized the extraction of seven benzotriazole UV filters evaluating the majority of the parameters involved in the extraction process, such as sorbent chemistry selection, extraction time, back-extraction solvent, back-extraction time and the impact of ionic strength. Under the optimized conditions, fabric phase sorptive extraction allows enrichment factors of 10 times with detection limits ranging from 6.01 to 60.7 ng L(-1) and intra- and inter-day % RSDs lower than 11 and 30 % for all compounds, respectively. The optimized sample preparation technique followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection was applied to determine the target analytes in sewage samples from wastewater treatment plants with different purification processes of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Two UV stabilizer compounds were measured in ranges 17.0-60.5 ng mL(-1) (UV 328) and 69.3-99.2 ng mL(-1) (UV 360) in the three sewage water samples analysed.

Keywords: Benzotriazole UV stabilizers; Emerging pollutants; Fabric phase sorptive extraction; Green sample preparation; Personal care products; Sewage samples; UHPLC-MS/MS.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Excipients / analysis*
  • Excipients / isolation & purification
  • Green Chemistry Technology
  • Limit of Detection
  • Sewage / analysis*
  • Solid Phase Extraction / methods*
  • Sunscreening Agents / chemistry
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Textiles / analysis
  • Triazoles / analysis*
  • Triazoles / isolation & purification
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / isolation & purification


  • Excipients
  • Sewage
  • Sunscreening Agents
  • Triazoles
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • benzotriazole