Background: There is paucity of data on the long-term outcome of the combination of fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection for the management of chronic anal fissure.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcome of the combination of fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection.
Design: This is a nonrandomized prospective cohort study.
Settings: This study was conducted at a district general hospital in the United Kingdom.
Patients: The cohort included all patients treated with fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A for chronic anal fissure between September 2008 and March 2012.
Intervention: The patients were treated with a combination of fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection.
Main outcome measures: Symptomatic relief, fissure healing, complications, recurrence, and the need for further surgical intervention.
Results: One hundred and two patients received fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection for chronic anal fissure. At 12-week follow-up, 68 patients had resolution of symptoms and complete healing of chronic anal fissure, 29 patients had improvement of symptoms but incomplete healing and had further topical or botulinum toxin A treatment with subsequent complete healing. Ninety-five patients (93%) reported no postoperative complications. Seven patients reported a degree of incontinence in the immediate postoperative period. All reported normal continence at12-week follow-up. No local complications were observed or reported. At the mean follow-up of 33 months, there was no evidence of recurrence. Twelve-month follow-up was conducted via telephone interview only.
Limitations: This study is nonrandomized and did not examine the dose response of Botulinum Toxin A.
Conclusions: Fissurectomy combined with high-dose botulinum toxin A is a safe, effective, and durable option for the management of chronic anal fissure and a promising alternative to surgical sphincterotomy.