Who is using e-cigarettes in Canada? Nationally representative data on the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Canadians

Prev Med. 2015 Dec:81:180-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.019. Epub 2015 Sep 5.


The current study examined prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the Canadian population, using data from the nationally representative 2013 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=14,565). Sociodemographic correlates of e-cigarette use (ever, and in the past 30 days) were examined using logistic regression models. Overall, 8.5% of Canadians aged 15 and older reported having ever tried an e-cigarette; 1.8% had used one in the past 30 days. E-cigarette use was particularly high among smokers and young people. Overall, prevalence did not differ between males and females, for ever (P=0.24) or past 30-day use (P=0.30). Smoking status was the strongest correlate of e-cigarette use (ever and in the past 30 days, P<0.0001): 37.3% of current smokers had ever tried an e-cigarette (9.6% used in the past 30 days), compared to 3.0% of never-smokers (0.3% past 30-days), and 5.1% of former smokers (0.9% past 30-day). E-cigarette use also varied by age (P<0.0001): prevalence was highest among youth aged 15-19 (19.8% ever; 2.6% past 30-day) and young adults aged 20-24 (20.1% ever; 3.9% past 30-day), and decreased with age. Among youth, the majority of e-cigarette users were never-smokers, while the majority of adult users were smokers. In Canada, e-cigarette use is particularly high among smokers and young people. Dual use with cigarettes was common, with most e-cigarette users also smoking conventional cigarettes. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette use and its relationship with smoking should be a priority, given the rapidly-evolving e-cigarette market and implementation of new policy measures.

Keywords: Canada; Electronic cigarettes; Nicotine; Smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Marketing
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Products / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult