Vermont's Community-Oriented All-Payer Medical Home Model Reduces Expenditures and Utilization While Delivering High-Quality Care

Popul Health Manag. 2016 Jun;19(3):196-205. doi: 10.1089/pop.2015.0055. Epub 2015 Sep 8.


Patient-centered medical home programs using different design and implementation strategies are being tested across the United States, and the impact of these programs on outcomes for a general population remains unclear. Vermont has pursued a statewide all-payer program wherein medical home practices are supported with additional staffing from a locally organized shared resource, the community health team. Using a 6-year, sequential, cross-sectional methodology, this study reviewed annual cost, utilization, and quality outcomes for patients attributed to 123 practices participating in the program as of December 2013 versus a comparison population from each year attributed to nonparticipating practices. Populations are grouped based on their practices' stage of participation in a calendar year (Pre-Year, Implementation Year, Scoring Year, Post-Year 1, Post-Year 2). Annual risk-adjusted total expenditures per capita at Pre-Year for the participant group and comparison group were not significantly different. The difference-in-differences change from Pre-Year to Post-Year 2 indicated that the participant group's expenditures were reduced by -$482 relative to the comparison (95% CI, -$573 to -$391; P < .001). The lower costs were driven primarily by inpatient (-$218; P < .001) and outpatient hospital expenditures (-$154; P < .001), with associated changes in inpatient and outpatient hospital utilization. Medicaid participants also had a relative increase in expenditures for dental, social, and community-based support services ($57; P < .001). Participants maintained higher rates on 9 of 11 effective and preventive care measures. These results suggest that Vermont's community-oriented medical home model is associated with improved outcomes for a general population at lower expenditures and utilization. (Population Health Management 2016;19:196-205).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cost Savings
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Databases, Factual
  • Health Care Costs*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient-Centered Care / economics*
  • Quality of Health Care*
  • Vermont
  • Young Adult