Despite stringent procedures to secure the best HLA matching between donors and recipients, life-threatening complications continue to occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Studying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in genes encoding costimulatory molecules could help identify patients at risk for post-HSCT complications. In a stepwise approach we selected SNPs in key costimulatory molecules including CD274, CD40, CD154, CD28, and TNFSF4 and systematically analyzed their association with post-HSCT outcomes. Our discovery cohort analysis of 1157 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 matched cases found that patients with donors homozygous for the C variant of rs10912564 in TNFSF4 (48%) had better disease-free survival (P = .029) and overall survival (P = .009) with less treatment-related mortality (P = .006). Our data demonstrate the TNFSF4C variant had a higher affinity for the nuclear transcription factor Myb and increased percentage of TNFSF4-positive B cells after stimulation compared with CT or TT genotypes. However, these associations were not validated in a more recent cohort, potentially because of changes in standard of practice or absence of a true association. Given the discovery cohort, functional data, and importance of TNFSF4 in infection clearance, TNFSF4C may associate with outcomes and warrants future studies.
Keywords: Costimulation; GVHD; Gene polymorphism; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Infection; Outcomes.
Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.