Prevalence and characteristics of MIH in school children residing in an endemic fluorosis area of India: an epidemiological study

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2015 Dec;16(6):455-60. doi: 10.1007/s40368-015-0194-8. Epub 2015 Sep 8.


Aim: This was to study the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among school children residing in a fluorosis endemic area in Tamilnadu (Salem, India).

Methods: A target sample of 5000 children of age ranging between 9 and 14 years, comprising 250 children from each of 20 blocks of Salem, participated in this study. The examination was completed in their respective schools by a calibrated examiner using EAPD criteria.

Results: Of 4989 children examined, 384 children had MIH. A prevalence of 7.3 %. The MIH found in girls was 8.9 % compared with 6.1 % in boys. Single-tooth involvement of MIH was seen predominantly in incisors (2.24 %), whereas with molars usually three teeth were involved (1.1 %). MIH with caries involvement was found in 51 % of the teeth.

Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the endemic fluorosis district was found to be 7.3 %. A gradual increase in MIH was seen with age due to post enamel breakdown. Caries involvement was also seen in more than 50 % of the MIH-involved teeth. This prevalence study for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is rare in the literature, especially in a fluorosis endemic district in Tamilnadu.

Keywords: EAPD index; Endemic fluorosis; Epidemiology; Molar incisor hypomineralisation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Dental Caries / epidemiology
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Endemic Diseases
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • Fluorosis, Dental / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology
  • Prevalence
  • Sex Factors