Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

Microbiol Spectr. 2015 Aug;3(4):10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0020-2015. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0020-2015.


Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Biofilms* / drug effects
  • Biofilms* / growth & development
  • Candida / drug effects*
  • Candida / genetics
  • Candida / growth & development
  • Candida / physiology*
  • Candidiasis / drug therapy
  • Candidiasis / microbiology*
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal*
  • Humans


  • Antifungal Agents