Objective: To identify clinical characteristics of residents with a diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) to determine the prevalence of comorbidities, severe mobility impairment (SMI), moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment (MSCI), and a toileting program and the response to that program.
Design: Cross-sectional retrospective analysis.
Setting: Skilled nursing facilities.
Patients, participants: Residents with a diagnosis of OAB and/or UI and an age range, and gender frequency-matched 1:1 control cohort without OAB and/or UI.
Main outcome measure(s): De-identified Minimum Data Set data 3.0 records (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012).
Results: Of the 175,632 residents, 65% had a diagnosis of UI and 1% had a diagnosis of OAB. Those with UI and/or OAB were more likely to have MSCI (mean Brief Inventory of Mental Status score 10.2 ± 4.5 vs. 12.5 ± 3.6; P = 0.001) and SMI (49.4% vs. 26.4%; P < 0.001), multiple comorbid conditions, falls and falls with injury, hip fractures (5.5% vs. 4.9%; P < 0.001), urinary tract infections (21.4% vs. 16.5%; P = 0.001), and moisture-associated skin damage (5.2% vs. 2.6%; P = 0.001) than the control cohort. Toileting programs were attempted more often (17.0% vs. 5.1%; P < 0.001) in those with UI and/or OAB but were only minimally successful, with 4.2% having decreased wetness and 0.9% being completely dry.
Conclusion: Residents with UI and/or OAB exhibit a higher burden of MSCI, SMI, and comorbidities than do residents without these diagnoses. Nonpharmacologic therapies such as toileting programs should be a primary focus in the nursing facility.