Purpose of review: To provide an update on the HIV treatment cascade in children and adolescents. We reviewed the literature on the steps in the cascade, for the period 2014-2015.
Recent findings: There remains high attrition of children with regards to early testing and linking those patients who are positive to early treatment. Barriers to screening and testing in children and adolescents are multifactorial. Linkage to pre-antiretroviral therapy care and retention in care are the main steps at which attrition occurs. There are a number of new formulations available for use in adolescents and children which offer more options for antiretroviral therapy treatment. Adherence levels appear to be reasonable in Africa and Asia; however, achieving viral load suppression remains a challenge.
Summary: We have a long way to go to achieve decreased attrition at each step of the cascade and retain patients in care. Recent improvements in each step of the cascade are bringing us closer to achieving treatment success.