Generation of gene-modified goats targeting MSTN and FGF5 via zygote injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system

Sci Rep. 2015 Sep 10;5:13878. doi: 10.1038/srep13878.


Recent advances in the study of the CRISPR/Cas9 system have provided a precise and versatile approach for genome editing in various species. However, the applicability and efficiency of this method in large animal models, such as the goat, have not been extensively studied. Here, by co-injection of one-cell stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting two functional genes (MSTN and FGF5), we successfully produced gene-modified goats with either one or both genes disrupted. The targeting efficiency of MSTN and FGF5 in cultured primary fibroblasts was as high as 60%, while the efficiency of disrupting MSTN and FGF5 in 98 tested animals was 15% and 21% respectively, and 10% for double gene modifications. The on- and off-target mutations of the target genes in fibroblasts, as well as in somatic tissues and testis of founder and dead animals, were carefully analyzed. The results showed that simultaneous editing of several sites was achieved in large animals, demonstrating that the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the potential to become a robust and efficient gene engineering tool in farm animals, and therefore will be critically important and applicable for breeding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Base Sequence
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems / genetics*
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 5 / chemistry
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 5 / genetics*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Gene Targeting*
  • Goats / genetics*
  • Microinjections
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Myostatin / chemistry
  • Myostatin / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • RNA Editing
  • RNA, Guide
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Zygote / metabolism*


  • Myostatin
  • RNA, Guide
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 5