Tentative clinical diagnosis of Lujan-Fryns syndrome--A conglomeration of different genetic entities?

Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Jan;170A(1):94-102. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37378. Epub 2015 Sep 11.


The clinical diagnosis of Lujan-Fryns syndrome (LFS) comprises X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with marfanoid habitus, distinct combination of minor facial anomalies and nasal speech. However the definition of syndrome was significantly broadened since the original report and implies ID with marfanoid habitus. Mutations of three genes (MED12, UPF3B, and ZDHHC9) have been reported in "broadly defined" LFS. We examined these genes in 28 individuals with a tentative clinical diagnosis of LFS but we did not identify any causative mutation. By molecular karyotyping we detected other disorders, i.e., Phelan-McDermid syndrome and 16p11.2 microduplication, each in one patient. One affected individual was carrier of a different recurrent duplication on 16p11.2 that has been reported several times to the DECIPHER and ISCA databases in individuals with autism, intellectual disability (ID), and developmental delay. It may represent a new duplication syndrome. We also identified previously unreported de novo duplication on chromosome 12p13.31 which we considered to be disease-causing. X-exome sequencing of four individuals revealed private or non-recurrent mutations in NKAP and LAS1L in one patient each. While LFS is defined as a form of XLID, there seem to be various conditions that have rather similar phenotypes. Therefore, the combination of ID and marfanoid habitus in a male patient is not sufficient for the diagnosis of LFS. We suggest that the diagnosis of LFS in patients with ID and marfanoid habitus should be made only in presence of specific facial features, nasal speech and obvious X-linked segregation of the disorder or an unambiguously pathogenic mutation in the MED12.

Keywords: 16p11.2; 18p11.32; Lujan-Fryns syndrome; X-exome; X-linked intellectual disability; clinical heterogeneity.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis*
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics
  • Acyltransferases / genetics
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / diagnosis*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics
  • Female
  • Genes, X-Linked / genetics*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / diagnosis*
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics
  • Male
  • Marfan Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Marfan Syndrome / genetics
  • Mediator Complex / genetics
  • Mental Retardation, X-Linked / diagnosis*
  • Mental Retardation, X-Linked / genetics
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Pedigree
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics


  • MED12 protein, human
  • Mediator Complex
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • UPF3B protein, human
  • Acyltransferases
  • ZDHHC9 protein, human

Supplementary concepts

  • Lujan Fryns syndrome