Complex genome evolution in Anopheles coluzzii associated with increased insecticide usage in Mali

Mol Ecol. 2015 Oct;24(20):5145-57. doi: 10.1111/mec.13382. Epub 2015 Oct 6.


In certain cases, a species may have access to important genetic variation present in a related species via adaptive introgression. These novel alleles may interact with their new genetic background, resulting in unexpected phenotypes. In this study, we describe a selective sweep on standing variation on the X chromosome in the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, a principal malaria vector in West Africa. This event may have been influenced by the recent adaptive introgression of the insecticide resistance gene known as kdr from the sister species Anopheles gambiae. Individuals carrying both kdr and a nearly fixed X-linked haplotype, encompassing at least four genes including the P450 gene CYP9K1 and the cuticular protein CPR125, have rapidly increased in relative frequency. In parallel, a reproductively isolated insecticide-susceptible A. gambiae population (Bamako form) has been driven to local extinction, likely due to strong selection from increased insecticide-treated bed net usage.

Keywords: Anopheles; P450; adaptive introgression; epistasis; hybridization; insecticide resistance; kdr; malaria vector.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Biological / genetics
  • Animals
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Gene Library
  • Genes, Insect
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Genotype
  • Haplotypes
  • Insecticide Resistance / genetics*
  • Insecticides
  • Mali
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • X Chromosome / genetics


  • Insecticides

Associated data

  • Dryad/10.5061/dryad.F3DN2
  • SRA/SRP063464