Non-motor symptoms in patients with adult-onset focal dystonia: Sensory and psychiatric disturbances

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016 Jan:22 Suppl 1:S111-4. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.09.001. Epub 2015 Sep 3.


Dystonia is characterized by the presence of involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal movements and posture. Adult onset focal dystonia include cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, arm dystonia and laryngeal dystonia. Besides motor manifestations, patients with focal dystonia frequently also display non-motor signs and symptoms. In this paper, we review the evidence of sensory and psychiatric disturbances in adult patients with focal dystonia. Clinical studies and neurophysiological investigations consistently show that the sensory system is involved in dystonia. Several studies have also demonstrated that neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are more frequent in patients with focal dystonia, whereas data on obsessive compulsive disorders are more contrasting.

Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Dystonia; Temporal discrimination threshold.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis
  • Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Dystonic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Dystonic Disorders / epidemiology
  • Dystonic Disorders / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology
  • Mental Disorders / psychology*
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / epidemiology
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / psychology
  • Sensation Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Sensation Disorders / epidemiology
  • Sensation Disorders / psychology*