Anxious-depression among Hispanic/Latinos from different backgrounds: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015 Nov;50(11):1669-77. doi: 10.1007/s00127-015-1120-4. Epub 2015 Sep 12.


Background: Anxious-depression is a constellation of symptoms, frequently encountered among patients in primary care centers. There is a need to study how anxious-depression presents among Hispanic/Latinos of different backgrounds.

Objective: To study the construct of anxious-depression among 16,064 Hispanic/Latinos of different backgrounds participating in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We hypothesized that Hispanic/Latinos will cluster in 3 classes: low anxiety/high depression, high anxiety/low depression and a combined anxious-depression construct.

Methods: Using latent profile analysis, symptoms of depression and anxiety measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and 10-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were evaluated to determine if an anxious-depression typology would result. A multinomial logistic regression analysis explored the association of the 3-class solution with different Hispanic/Latino backgrounds controlling for age, gender, language, education and income.

Results: A 3-class mixed anxious-depression structure emerged with 10% of Hispanic/Latinos in the high, 30% in the moderate and 60% in the low anxious-depression category. After adjusting for age, gender, language preference, income and education, individuals of Puerto Rican background were more likely to experience high (OR = 1.79, p < 0.05) and moderate (OR = 1.36, p < 0.05) (vs. low) anxious-depression symptomatology compared to those of Mexican background. Individuals of Central American and South American background were less likely to experience high (OR = 0.68, p < 0.05) and moderate (OR = 0.8, p < 0.05) (vs. low) anxious-depression compared to those of Mexican background.

Conclusion: Anxious-depression symptomatology varied among this sample of Hispanic/Latino groups. These classes should be investigated as to their relationship with different health outcomes relevant to the Hispanic/Latino of different backgrounds.

Keywords: Anxious-depression; Epidemiology; Hispanic/Latinos; Latent profile analyses; Psychiatric.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / ethnology*
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Central America / ethnology
  • Depression / ethnology*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / ethnology
  • Puerto Rico / ethnology
  • Risk Factors
  • South America / ethnology