Purpose: One of the hallmarks of cancer immunotherapy is the long duration of responses, evident with cytokines like interleukin-2 or a variety of cancer vaccines. However, there is limited information available on very long term outcomes of patients treated with anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies. Tremelimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) isotype initially tested in patients with advanced melanoma over 12 years ago.
Methods: We reviewed the outcomes of patients with advanced melanoma enrolled in four phase 1 and 2 tremelimumab trials at two sites to determine response rates and long-term survival.
Results: A total of 143 patients were enrolled at two institutions from 2002 to 2008. Tremelimumab administration varied between a single dose of 0.01 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg every 3 months. Median overall survival was 13 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 10-16.6), ranging from less than a month to 12+ years. An objective response rate of 15.6% was observed, with median duration of response of 6.5 years, range of 3-136+ months. The Kaplan-Meier estimated 5 year survival rate was 20% (95% CI, 13-26%), with 10 and 12.5 year survival rates of 16% (95% CI, 9-23%).
Conclusions: CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab can lead to very long duration of objective anti-tumour responses beyond 12 years.
Keywords: Anti-CTLA-4 therapy; Immunotherapy; Melanoma; Tremelimumab.
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