Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution 5.0% versus Placebo for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease: Results of the Randomized Phase III OPUS-2 Study

Ophthalmology. 2015 Dec;122(12):2423-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.08.001. Epub 2015 Sep 11.


Purpose: Lifitegrast is an integrin antagonist that decreases T-cell-mediated inflammation associated with dry eye disease (DED). We report the results of OPUS-2, a phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast compared with placebo for the treatment of DED.

Design: A 12-week, multicenter, randomized, prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Participants: Adults aged ≥18 years with use of artificial tears within 30 days, inferior corneal staining score ≥0.5 (0-4 scale), Schirmer tear test (without anesthesia) ≥1 and ≤10 mm, and eye dryness score ≥40 (0-100 visual analogue scale [VAS]).

Methods: Subjects were randomized 1:1 after 14-day placebo run-in to lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% or placebo twice daily for 84 days.

Main outcome measures: Co-primary efficacy end points were change, from baseline to day 84, in eye dryness score (VAS, both eyes) and inferior corneal fluorescein staining score in the designated study eye. Secondary end points were change, from baseline to day 84, in ocular discomfort score (0-4 scale) in study eye, eye discomfort score (VAS), total corneal staining score in the study eye, and nasal conjunctival lissamine green staining score (0-4 scale) in the study eye. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded.

Results: A total of 718 subjects were randomized: placebo, n = 360; lifitegrast, n = 358 (intent-to-treat population). Lifitegrast-treated subjects experienced greater improvement in eye dryness than placebo-treated subjects (treatment effect, 12.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.51-16.70; P < 0.0001). There was no between-group difference in inferior corneal staining (treatment effect, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.17; P = 0.6186). There was nominally significant improvement of secondary symptom end points among lifitegrast-treated subjects: ocular discomfort (nominal P = 0.0005) and eye discomfort (nominal, P < 0.0001). There were no between-group differences on secondary signs: total corneal staining and nasal lissamine staining. More lifitegrast-treated subjects (33.7%) than placebo-treated subjects (16.4%) experienced ocular TEAEs; no ocular TEAEs were serious.

Conclusions: Lifitegrast met the co-primary symptom end point (eye dryness) but not the co-primary sign end point (inferior corneal staining). Secondary end point findings were consistent with this pattern. Most ocular TEAEs were mild to moderate; there were no unexpected TEAEs. Lifitegrast warrants further consideration as a treatment for DED.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cornea / drug effects
  • Cornea / physiopathology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Dry Eye Syndromes / drug therapy*
  • Dry Eye Syndromes / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Phenylalanine / administration & dosage
  • Phenylalanine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sulfones / administration & dosage*
  • Tears / physiology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Visual Analog Scale
  • Young Adult


  • Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Sulfones
  • lifitegrast
  • Phenylalanine