Embryonic Lethality Due to Arrested Cardiac Development in Psip1/Hdgfrp2 Double-Deficient Mice

PLoS One. 2015 Sep 14;10(9):e0137797. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137797. eCollection 2015.


Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) related protein 2 (HRP2) and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 are closely related members of the HRP2 protein family. LEDGF/p75 has been implicated in numerous human pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious disease. Knockout of the Psip1 gene, which encodes for LEDGF/p75 and the shorter LEDGF/p52 isoform, was previously shown to cause perinatal lethality in mice. The function of HRP2 was by contrast largely unknown. To learn about the role of HRP2 in development, we knocked out the Hdgfrp2 gene, which encodes for HRP2, in both normal and Psip1 knockout mice. Hdgfrp2 knockout mice developed normally and were fertile. By contrast, the double deficient mice died at approximate embryonic day (E) 13.5. Histological examination revealed ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with E14.5 double knockout embryos. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism(s), RNA recovered from ventricular tissue was subjected to RNA-sequencing on the Illumina platform. Bioinformatic analysis revealed several genes and biological pathways that were significantly deregulated by the Psip1 knockout and/or Psip1/Hdgfrp2 double knockout. Among the dozen genes known to encode for LEDGF/p75 binding factors, only the expression of Nova1, which encodes an RNA splicing factor, was significantly deregulated by the knockouts. However the expression of other RNA splicing factors, including the LEDGF/p52-interacting protein ASF/SF2, was not significantly altered, indicating that deregulation of global RNA splicing was not a driving factor in the pathology of the VSD. Tumor growth factor (Tgf) β-signaling, which plays a key role in cardiac morphogenesis during development, was the only pathway significantly deregulated by the double knockout as compared to control and Psip1 knockout samples. We accordingly speculate that deregulated Tgf-β signaling was a contributing factor to the VSD and prenatal lethality of Psip1/Hdgfrp2 double-deficient mice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics*
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Female
  • Fetal Death
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Heart / embryology*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / mortality*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / genetics
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / mortality
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / pathology
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics*
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Neuro-Oncological Ventral Antigen
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Neuro-Oncological Ventral Antigen
  • Nova1 protein, mouse
  • Psip1 protein, mouse
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • hepatoma-derived growth factor
  • lens epithelium-derived growth factor