Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2015 Sep 14;2015(9):CD011045.
doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011045.pub2.

Portion, Package or Tableware Size for Changing Selection and Consumption of Food, Alcohol and Tobacco

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Portion, Package or Tableware Size for Changing Selection and Consumption of Food, Alcohol and Tobacco

Gareth J Hollands et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention.

Objectives: 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children.2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics.

Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions.

Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco.

Data collection and analysis: We applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies for inclusion and to collect data and assess risk of bias. We calculated study-level effect sizes as standardised mean differences (SMDs) between comparison groups, measured as quantities selected or consumed. We combined these results using random-effects meta-analysis models to estimate summary effect sizes (SMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for each outcome for size and shape comparisons. We rated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE system. Finally, we used meta-regression analysis to investigate statistical associations between summary effect sizes and variant study, intervention or participant characteristics.

Main results: The current version of this review includes 72 studies, published between 1978 and July 2013, assessed as being at overall unclear or high risk of bias with respect to selection and consumption outcomes. Ninety-six per cent of included studies (69/72) manipulated food products and 4% (3/72) manipulated cigarettes. No included studies manipulated alcohol products. Forty-nine per cent (35/72) manipulated portion size, 14% (10/72) package size and 21% (15/72) tableware size or shape. More studies investigated effects among adults (76% (55/72)) than children and all studies were conducted in high-income countries - predominantly in the USA (81% (58/72)). Sources of funding were reported for the majority of studies, with no evidence of funding by agencies with possible commercial interests in their results.A meta-analysis of 86 independent comparisons from 58 studies (6603 participants) found a small to moderate effect of portion, package, individual unit or tableware size on consumption of food (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46), providing moderate quality evidence that exposure to larger sizes increased quantities of food consumed among children (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.31) and adults (SMD 0.46, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.52). The size of this effect suggests that, if sustained reductions in exposure to larger-sized food portions, packages and tableware could be achieved across the whole diet, this could reduce average daily energy consumed from food by between 144 and 228 kcal (8.5% to 13.5% from a baseline of 1689 kcal) among UK children and adults. A meta-analysis of six independent comparisons from three studies (108 participants) found low quality evidence for no difference in the effect of cigarette length on consumption (SMD 0.25, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.65).One included study (50 participants) estimated a large effect on consumption of exposure to differently shaped tableware (SMD 1.17, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.78), rated as very low quality evidence that exposure to shorter, wider bottles (versus taller, narrower bottles) increased quantities of water consumed by young adult participants.A meta-analysis of 13 independent comparisons from 10 studies (1164 participants) found a small to moderate effect of portion or tableware size on selection of food (SMD 0.42, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.59), rated as moderate quality evidence that exposure to larger sizes increased the quantities of food people selected for subsequent consumption. This effect was present among adults (SMD 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.75) but not children (SMD 0.14, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.34).In addition, a meta-analysis of three independent comparisons from three studies (232 participants) found a very large effect of exposure to differently shaped tableware on selection of non-alcoholic beverages (SMD 1.47, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.43), rated as low quality evidence that exposure to shorter, wider (versus taller, narrower) glasses or bottles increased the quantities selected for subsequent consumption among adults (SMD 2.31, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.83) and children (SMD 1.03, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.65).

Authors' conclusions: This review found that people consistently consume more food and drink when offered larger-sized portions, packages or tableware than when offered smaller-sized versions. This suggests that policies and practices that successfully reduce the size, availability and appeal of larger-sized portions, packages, individual units and tableware can contribute to meaningful reductions in the quantities of food (including non-alcoholic beverages) people select and consume in the immediate and short term. However, it is uncertain whether reducing portions at the smaller end of the size range can be as effective in reducing food consumption as reductions at the larger end of the range. We are unable to highlight clear implications for tobacco or alcohol policy due to identified gaps in the current evidence base.

Conflict of interest statement

Gareth Hollands declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

Ian Shemilt declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

Theresa Marteau declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

Susan Jebb is Chair of the Public Health Responsibility Deal Food Network, which develops voluntary agreements with industry to improve health, including reductions in portion size of foods high in fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt. She has also led research projects in which foods have been provided by a range of commercial companies as part of dietary intervention studies funded by public bodies. She was also a co‐author of a published study (completed 2010) funded by the Coca‐Cola Institute for Health & Wellness, which showed no effect on weight loss of a putative functional beverage.

Hannah Lewis declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

Yinghui Wei declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

Julian Higgins declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

David Ogilvie declares no financial or other conflicts of interest.

Figures

1
1
Final conceptual model. The 28 constructs included in the provisional conceptual model (Hollands 2014) and retained in this final version are shown in plain type. The 22 constructs added to this final conceptual model based on theory and evidence encountered during the review process are shown in red type. The 2 constructs included in the provisional conceptual model (Hollands 2014) but excluded from this final version are shown in strikethrough plain type. See Table 5 for a full record of the conceptual model development process.
2
2
PRISMA study flow diagram.
3
3
'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all eligible studies (N = 83. 'Risk of bias' assessments completed for 72 eligible studies included in the review. White spaces in the bars of this graph denote the respective proportions of the 72 included studies that did not measure (i) selection or (ii) consumption outcomes. See also Results of the search and Figure 2).
4
4
Effect sizes re‐expressed using familiar metrics
5
5
Forest plot of the standardised mean difference in unregulated consumption of food or tobacco between participants exposed to larger (intervention) versus smaller (control) sized portions, packages, individual units and/or tableware
6
6
Assessing publication bias. Funnel plots including all studies reporting the selection outcome (left) and consumption outcome (right) do not show asymmetry (Egger test P value = 0.20 and P value = 0.18 respectively)
7
7
Summary effect sizes (standardised mean differences) in subgroups of studies (consumption outcome)
8
8
Bubble plots. Fitted meta‐regression lines showing associations between study‐level effect sizes for consumption and study characteristics (continuous variables) identified as effect modifiers: a) FSA score; b) energy density; c) age.
9
9
Forest plot of the standardised mean difference in unregulated selection (without purchase) of food between participants exposed to larger (intervention) versus smaller (control) sized portions, packages and/or tableware
10
10
Summary effect sizes (standardised mean differences) in subgroups of studies (selection outcome)
11
11
Forest plot of the standardised mean difference in unregulated selection without purchase of fruit juices or water between participants exposed to shorter, wider (intervention) versus taller, narrower (control) empty glasses or plastic bottles

Update of

  • Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011045

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 84 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

References to studies included in this review

Ahn 2010 {published data only}
    1. Ahn HJ, Han KA, Kwon HR, Min KW. The small rice bowl‐based meal plan was effective at reducing dietary energy intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels in Korean women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Korean Diabetes Journal 2010;34(6):340‐9. - PMC - PubMed
Argo 2012 (S1) {published data only}
    1. Argo JJ, White K. When do consumers eat more? The role of appearance self‐esteem and food packaging cues (Study 1). Journal of Marketing 2012;76(2):67‐80.
Argo 2012 (S2) {published data only}
    1. Argo JJ, White K. When do consumers eat more? The role of appearance self‐esteem and food packaging cues (Study 2). Journal of Marketing 2012;76(2):67‐80.
Argo 2012 (S4) {published data only}
    1. Argo JJ, White K. When do consumers eat more? The role of appearance self‐esteem and food packaging cues (Study 4). Journal of Marketing 2012;76(2):67‐80.
Argo 2012 (S5) {published data only}
    1. Argo JJ, White K. When do consumers eat more? The role of appearance self‐esteem and food packaging cues (Study 5). Journal of Marketing 2012;76(2):67‐80.
Burger 2011 {published data only}
    1. Burger KS, Fisher JO, Johnson SL. Mechanisms behind the portion size effect: visibility and bite size. Obesity 2011;19(3):546‐51. - PubMed
Cavanagh 2013 {published data only}
    1. Cavanagh K, Vartanian LR, Herman CP, Polivy J. The effect of portion size on food intake is robust to brief education and mindfulness exercises. Journal of Health Psychology 2013;19(6):730‐9. - PubMed
Coelho do Vale 2008 (S2) {published data only}
    1. Coelho do Vale R, Pieters R, Zeelenberg M. Flying under the radar: perverse package size effects on consumption self‐regulation (study 2). Journal of Consumer Research 2008;35(3):380‐90.
Devitt 2004 {published data only}
    1. Devitt AA, Mattes RD. Effects of food unit size and energy density on intake in humans. Appetite 2004;42(2):213‐20. - PubMed
Diliberti 2004 {published data only}
    1. Diliberti N, Bordi PL, Conklin MT, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obesity Research 2004;12(3):562‐8. - PubMed
DiSantis 2013 {published data only}
    1. DiSantis KI, Birch LL, Davey A, Serrano EL, Zhang J, Bruton Y, et al. Plate size and children’s appetite: effects of larger dishware on self‐served portions and intake. Pediatrics 2013;131(5):e1451‐8. - PubMed
Ebbeling 2007 {published data only}
    1. Ebbeling CB, Garcia‐Lago E, Leidig MM, Seger‐Shippee LG, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Altering portion sizes and eating rate to attenuate gorging during a fast food meal: effects on energy intake. Pediatrics 2007;119(5):869‐75. - PubMed
Fisher 2003 {published data only}
    1. Fisher JO, Rolls BJ, Birch LL. Children's bite size and intake of an entree are greater with large portions than with age‐appropriate or self‐selected portions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77(5):1164‐70. - PMC - PubMed
Fisher 2007a {published data only}
    1. Fisher JO, Arreola A, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low‐income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86(6):1709‐16. - PubMed
Fisher 2007b {published data only}
    1. Fisher JO, Liu Y, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Effects of portion size and energy density on young children's intake at a meal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86(1):174‐9. - PMC - PubMed
Fisher 2007c {published data only}
    1. Fisher JO. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self‐selected food portions. Obesity 2007;15(2):403‐12. - PubMed
Fisher 2013 {published data only}
    1. Fisher JO, Birch LL, Zhang J, Grusak MA, Hughes SO. External influences on children’s self‐served portions at meals. International Journal of Obesity 2013;37:954–60. - PubMed
Flood 2006 {published data only}
    1. Flood JE, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. The effect of increased beverage portion size on energy intake at a meal. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006;106(12):1984‐90. - PubMed
Goldstein 2006 {published data only}
    1. Goldstein RB. Mindless Eating: How Differences in Portion Size Influence Popcorn Consumption for Males and Females. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University 2006.
Hermans 2012 {published data only}
    1. Hermans RCJ, Larsen JK, Herman CP, Engels RCME. Effects of portion size and social modeling on food intake of young women. Appetite 2010;54(3):649.
    1. Hermans RCJ, Larsen JK, Herman CP, Engels RCME. How much should I eat? Situational norms affect young women's food intake during meal time. British Journal of Nutrition 2012;107(4):588‐94. - PubMed
Huss 2013 {published data only}
    1. Huss LR. Timing of Dessert but Not Portion Size Affects Young Children's Intake at Lunchtime (College of Health and Human Sciences Honors Program Undergraduate Theses, Paper 6). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 2012.
    1. Huss LR, Laurentz S, Fisher JO, McCabe GP, Kranz S. Timing of serving dessert but not portion size affects young children's intake at lunchtime. Appetite 2013;68:158–63. - PubMed
Jarvik 1978 (E1) {published data only}
    1. Jarvik ME, Popek P, Schneider NG, Baer‐Weiss V, Gritz ER. Can cigarette size and nicotine content influence smoking and puffing rates? (Experiment 1). Psychopharmacology 1978;58(3):303‐6. - PubMed
Jarvik 1978 (E2) {published data only}
    1. Jarvik ME, Popek P, Schneider NG, Baer‐Weiss V, Gritz ER. Can cigarette size and nicotine content influence smoking and puffing rates? (Experiment 2). Psychopharmacology 1978;58(3):303‐6. - PubMed
Jeffery 2007 {published data only}
    1. Jeffery RW, Rydell S, Dunn CL, Harnack LJ, Levine AS, Pentel PR, et al. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007;4:27. - PMC - PubMed
Kelly 2009 {published data only}
    1. Kelly MT. Investigation of the contribution made by food portion size to food and energy intake (PhD Thesis). Coleraine: University of Ulster, 2008.
    1. Kelly MT, Wallace JMW, Robson PJ, Rennie KL, Welch RW, Hannon‐Fletcher MP, et al. Increased portion size leads to a sustained increase in energy intake over 4 d in normal‐weight and overweight men and women. British Journal of Nutrition 2009;102(3):470‐7. - PubMed
Koh 2009 {published data only}
    1. Koh J, Pliner P. The effects of degree of acquaintance, plate size, and sharing on food intake. Appetite 2009;52(3):595‐602. - PubMed
Kral 2004a {published data only}
    1. Kral TVE, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;79(6):962‐8. - PubMed
Kral 2010 {published data only}
    1. Kral TVE, Kabay AC, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Effects of doubling the portion size of fruit and vegetable side dishes on children's intake at a meal. Obesity 2010;18(3):521‐7. - PubMed
Leahy 2008 {published data only}
    1. Leahy KE, Birch LL, Fisher JO, Rolls BJ. Reductions in entree energy density increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake. Obesity 2008;16(7):1559‐65. - PubMed
Levitsky 2004 {published data only}
    1. Levitsky DA, Youn T. The more food young adults are served, the more they overeat. Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(10):2546‐9. - PubMed
Looney 2011 {published data only}
    1. Looney SM, Raynor HA. Impact of portion size and energy density on snack intake in preschool‐aged children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2011;111(3):414‐8. - PubMed
Marchiori 2011 {published data only}
    1. Marchiori D, Klein O. Size Matters! The Joint Influence of the Size of Portion, Food Item and Container on Food Intake [Dissertation thesis]. Brussels: Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2012.
    1. Marchiori D, Waroquier L, Klein O. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2011;111(5):727‐31. - PubMed
Marchiori 2012a {published data only}
    1. Marchiori D, Corneille O, Klein O. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size. Appetite 2012;58(3):814‐7. - PubMed
    1. Marchiori D, Corneille O, Klein O. Corrigendum to ‘Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size’ [Appetite 2012a; 58(3): 814‐817]. Appetite 2012;59(2):616. - PubMed
    1. Marchiori D, Klein O. Size Matters! The Joint Influence of the Size of Portion, Food Item and Container on Food Intake [Dissertation thesis]. Brussels: Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2012.
Marchiori 2012c {published data only}
    1. Marchiori D, Klein O. Size Matters! The Joint Influence of the Size of Portion, Food Item and Container on Food Intake [Dissertation thesis]. Brussels: Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2012.
    1. Marchiori D, Waroquier L, Klein O. "Split them!" smaller item sizes of cookies lead to a decrease in energy intake in children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2012;44(3):251‐5. - PubMed
Mathias 2012 {published data only}
    1. Mathias KC, Rolls BJ, Birch LL, Kral TVE, Hanna EL, Davey A, et al. Serving larger portions of fruits and vegetables together at dinner promotes intake of both foods among young children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2012;112(2):266‐70. - PMC - PubMed
Mishra 2012 (S1) {published data only}
    1. Mishra A, Mishra H, Masters TM. The influence of bite size on quantity of food consumed: A field study (Study 1). Journal of Consumer Research 2012;38(5):791‐5.
Mishra 2012 (S2) {published data only}
    1. Mishra A, Mishra H, Masters TM. The influence of bite size on quantity of food consumed: A field study (Study 2). Journal of Consumer Research 2012;38(5):791‐5.
Raynor 2007 {published data only}
    1. Raynor HA, Wing RR. Package unit size and amount of food: do both influence intake?. Obesity 2007;15(9):2311‐9. - PubMed
Raynor 2009 {published data only}
    1. Raynor HA, Walleghen EL, Niemeier H, Butryn ML, Wing RR. Do food provisions packaged in single‐servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight‐loss intervention?. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009;109(11):1922‐5. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2000 {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Engell D, Birch LL. Serving portion size influences 5‐year‐old but not 3‐year‐old children's food intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000;100(2):232‐4. - PubMed
Rolls 2002 {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal‐weight and overweight men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(6):1207‐13. - PubMed
Rolls 2004a {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004;104(3):367‐72. - PubMed
Rolls 2004b {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Kral TVE, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite 2004;42(1):63‐9. - PubMed
Rolls 2006a {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over 2 days. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006;106(4):543‐9. - PubMed
Rolls 2006b {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(1):11‐7. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2007a {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. The effect of large portion sizes on energy intake is sustained for 11 days. Obesity 2007;15(6):1535‐43. - PubMed
Rolls 2007b (S1) {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Halverson HH, Meengs JS. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals (Study 1). Appetite 2007;49(3):652‐60. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2007b (S2) {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Halverson KH, Meengs JS. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals (Study 2). Appetite 2007;49(3):652‐60. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2007b (S3) {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Halverson KH, Meengs JS. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals (Study 3). Appetite 2007;49(3):652‐60. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2010a (E1) {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Portion size can be used strategically to increase vegetable consumption in adults (Experiment 1). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(4):913‐22. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2010b (E2) {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Portion size can be used strategically to increase vegetable consumption in adults (Experiment 2). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(4):913‐22. - PMC - PubMed
Russell 1980 {published data only}
    1. Russell MAH, Sutton SR, Feyerabend C, Saloojee Y. Smokers' response to shortened cigarettes: dose reduction without dilution of tobacco smoke. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1980;27(2):210‐8. - PubMed
Scott 2008b (S2) {published data only}
    1. Scott ML. The effect of reduced food and package sizes on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2008;69(2‐A):681.
    1. Scott ML, Nowlis SM, Mandel N, Morales AC. The effects of reduced food size and package size on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters (Study 2). Journal of Consumer Research 2008;35(3):391‐405.
Scott 2008c (S3) {published data only}
    1. Scott ML. The effect of reduced food and package sizes on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2008b;69(2‐A):681.
    1. Scott ML, Nowlis SM, Mandel N, Morales AC. The effects of reduced food size and package size on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters (Study 3). Journal of Consumer Research 2008;35(3):391‐405.
Scott 2008d (S4) {published data only}
    1. Scott ML. The effect of reduced food and package sizes on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2008b;69(2‐A):681.
    1. Scott ML, Nowlis SM, Mandel N, Morales AC. The effects of reduced food size and package size on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters (Study 4). Journal of Consumer Research 2008;35(3):391‐405.
Shah 2011 {published data only}
    1. Shah M, Schroeder R, Winn W, Adams‐Huet B. A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2011;24(6):612‐5. - PubMed
Spill 2010 {published data only}
    1. Spill MK, Birch LL, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Eating vegetables first: the use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(5):1237‐43. - PMC - PubMed
Spill 2011b {published data only}
    1. Spill MK, Birch LL, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children's energy and vegetable intake. Appetite 2011;57(1):213‐9. - PMC - PubMed
Stroebele 2009 {published data only}
    1. Stroebele N, Ogden LG, Hill JO. Do calorie‐controlled portion sizes of snacks reduce energy intake?. Appetite 2009;52(3):793‐6. - PMC - PubMed
van Kleef 2012 {published data only}
    1. Kleef E, Shimizu M, Wansink B. Serving bowl selection biases the amount of food served. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2012;44(1):66‐70. - PubMed
van Kleef 2013 {published data only}
    1. Kleef E, Shimizu M, Wansink B. Just a bite: considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving. Food Quality and Preference 2013;27(1):96‐100.
Wansink 1996a (S1) {published data only}
    1. Wansink B. Can package size accelerate usage volume? (Study 1). Journal of Marketing 1996;60(3):1‐14.
Wansink 1996b (S2) {published data only}
    1. Wansink B. Can package size accelerate usage volume? (Study 2). Journal of Marketing 1996;60(3):1‐14.
Wansink 1996c (S4) {published data only}
    1. Wansink B. Can package size accelerate usage volume? (Study 4). Journal of Marketing 1996;60(3):1‐14.
Wansink 2001 {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Park SB. At the movies: how external cues and perceived taste impact consumption volume. Food Quality and Preference 2001;12(1):69‐74.
Wansink 2003 (S1) {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K. Bottoms up! The influence of elongation on pouring and consumption volume (Study 1). Journal of Consumer Research 2003;30(3):455‐63.
Wansink 2003 (S2) {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K. Bottoms up! The influence of elongation on pouring and consumption volume (Study 2). Journal of Consumer Research 2003;30(3):455‐63.
Wansink 2005b {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Kim J. Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2005;37(5):242‐5. - PubMed
Wansink 2005d {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Cardello A, North J. Fluid consumption and the potential role of canteen shape in minimizing dehydration. Military Medicine 2005;170(10):871‐3. - PubMed
Wansink 2006 {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K, Painter JE. Ice cream illusions bowls, spoons, and self‐served portion sizes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2006;31(3):240‐3. - PubMed
Wansink 2011a (S4) {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Payne CR, Shimizu M. The 100‐calorie semi‐solution: sub‐packaging most reduces intake among the heaviest. Obesity 2011;19(5):1098‐100. - PubMed
Wansink 2011b {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Just DR, Smith LE, Wallace CE. Lunch line redesign: making school lunchrooms smarter. FASEB Journal. Conference: Experimental Biology 2011;25:342‐8.
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K. Portion size me: plate‐size induced consumption norms and win‐win solutions for reducing food intake and waste. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 2013;19(4):320‐32. - PubMed

References to studies excluded from this review

Andrade 2008 {published data only}
    1. Andrade AM, Greene GW, Melanson KJ. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2008;108(7):1186‐91. - PubMed
Ashton 1978 {published data only}
    1. Ashton H, Stepney R, Thompson JW. Smoking behaviour and nicotine intake in smokers presented with a "two‐thirds" cigarette. Smoking Behaviour ‐ Physiological and Psychological Influences. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1978.
Attwood 2012 {published data only}
    1. Attwood AS, Scott‐Samuel NE, Stothart G, Munafo MR. Glass shape influences consumption rate for alcoholic beverages. PloS One 2012;7(8):e43007. - PMC - PubMed
Balagura 1974 {published data only}
    1. Balagura S, Harrell LE. Effect of size of food on food‐consumption ‐ some neurophysiological considerations. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1974;86(4):658‐63. - PubMed
Bell 2003 {published data only}
    1. Bell EA, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Sensory‐specific satiety is affected more by volume than by energy content of a liquid food. Physiology & Behavior 2003;78:593‐600. - PubMed
Blum 2007 {published data only}
    1. Blum JEW, Davee AM, Devore RL, Beaudoin CM, Jenkins PL, Kaley LA, et al. Implementation of low‐fat, low‐sugar, and portion‐controlled nutrition guidelines in competitive food venues of Maine public high schools: research article. Journal of School Health 2007;77(10):687‐93. - PubMed
Bohnert 2011 {published data only}
    1. Bohnert AM, Randall ET, Tharp S, Germann J. The development and evaluation of a portion plate for youth: a pilot study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2011;1(4):268‐73. - PubMed
Boyer 2012 {published data only}
    1. Boyer LE, Laurentz S, McCabe GP, Kranz S. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross‐over study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:94. - PMC - PubMed
Brown 2006 {published data only}
    1. Brown D. Travel sizes bring portions to the forefront. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006;106(6):793. - PubMed
Caljouw 2014 {published data only}
    1. Caljouw SR, Van W. Is the glass half full or half empty? How to reverse the effect of glass elongation on the volume poured. PloS One 2014;9:e109374. - PMC - PubMed
Campbell 1996 {published data only}
    1. Campbell MK, Polhamus B, McClelland JW, Bennett K, Kalsbeek W, Coole D, et al. Assessing fruit and vegetable consumption in a 5 A Day study targeting rural blacks: the issue of portion size. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996;96(10):1040‐2. - PubMed
Chait 1982a {published data only}
    1. Chait LD, Griffiths RR. Smoking behavior and tobacco smoke intake: response of smokers to shortened cigarettes. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1982;32(1):90‐7. - PubMed
Chait 1982b {published data only}
    1. Chait LD, Griffiths RR. Differential control of puff duration and interpuff interval in cigarette smokers. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 1982;17(1):155‐8. - PubMed
Chandler 2009 {published data only}
    1. Chandler C, Hietpas F, Clark H, Smead K. Effect of straw diameter on bolus volume and muscle activity. Dysphagia 2009;24(4):471.
Chandon 2009 {published data only}
    1. Chandon P, Ordabayeva N. Supersize in one dimension, downsize in three dimensions: effects of spatial dimensionality on size perceptions and preferences. Journal of Marketing Research 2009;46(6):739‐53.
Chang 2012 {published data only}
    1. Chang UJ, Suh HJ, Yang SO, Hong YH, Kim YS, Kim JM, et al. Distinct foods with smaller unit would be an effective approach to achieve sustainable weight loss. Eating Behaviors 2012;13(1):74‐7. - PubMed
Cleghorn 2010 {published data only}
    1. Cleghorn CL, Evans CE, Kitchen MS, Cade JE. Details and acceptability of a nutrition intervention programme designed to improve the contents of children's packed lunches. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(8):1254‐61. - PubMed
Cluskey 1999 {published data only}
    1. Cluskey M, Dunton N. Serving meals of reduced portion size did not improve appetite among elderly in a personal‐care section of a long‐term‐care community. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999;99(6):733‐5. - PubMed
Collings 2008 {published data only}
    1. Collings AS. An experiment analysis of the impact of advertising and food packaging on women's eating behavior. Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations 2008; Vol. 138.
Cullen 2005 {published data only}
    1. Cullen KW, Thompson DI. Texas school food policy changes related to middle school a la carte/snack bar foods: potential savings in kilocalories. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2005;105(12):1952‐4. - PubMed
Cunningham 2011 {published data only}
    1. Cunningham E. What impact does plate size have on portion control?. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2011;111(9):1438. - PubMed
Divert 2015 {published data only}
    1. Divert C, Laghmaoui R, Crema C, Issanchou S, Van W, Virginie SRC. Improving meal context in nursing homes. Impact of four strategies on food intake and meal pleasure. Appetite 2015;84:139‐47. - PubMed
Edelman 1986 {published data only}
    1. Edelman B, Engell D, Bronstein P, Hirsch E. Environmental effects on the intake of overweight and normal‐weight men. Appetite 1986;7(1):71‐83. - PubMed
Ello‐Martin 2005 {published data only}
    1. Ello‐Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82:236S‐41S. - PubMed
Etten 1995 {published data only}
    1. Etten ML, Higgins ST, Bickel WK. Effects of response cost and unit dose on alcohol self‐administration in moderate drinkers. Behavioural Pharmacology 2005;7:754‐8. - PubMed
Farleigh 1990 {published data only}
    1. Farleigh CA, Shepherd R, Wharf SG. The effect of manipulation of salt pot hole size on table salt use. Food Quality and Preference 1990;2(1):13‐20.
Faucher 2010 {published data only}
    1. Faucher MA, Mobley J. A community intervention on portion control aimed at weight loss in low‐income Mexican American women. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 2010;55:60‐4. - PubMed
Freedman 2010 {published data only}
    1. Freedman MR, Brochado C. Reducing portion size reduces food intake and plate waste. Obesity 2010;18(9):1864‐6. - PubMed
French 2014 {published data only}
    1. French SA, Mitchell NR, Wolfson J, Harnack LJ, Jeffery RW, Gerlach AF, et al. Portion size effects on weight gain in a free living setting. Obesity 2014;22:1400‐5. - PMC - PubMed
Garber 2008 {published data only}
    1. Garber LL, Hyatt EM, Boya UO. Does visual package clutter obscure the communicability of food package shape?. Journal of Food Products Marketing 2008;14(4):21‐32.
Geaney 2013 {published data only}
    1. Geaney F, Scotto Di M, Kelly C, Fitzgerald AP, Harrington JM, Kirby A, et al. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet‐related disease risk ‐ study protocol for a clustered controlled trial. Trials 2013;14:370. - PMC - PubMed
Geier 2006 {published data only}
    1. Geier AB, Rozin P, Doros G. Unit bias: a new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychological Science 2006;17(6):521‐5. - PubMed
Gillis 2009 {published data only}
    1. Gillis B, Mobley C, Stadler DD, Hartstein J, Virus A, Volpe SL, et al. Healthy Study Group. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S29‐S36. - PMC - PubMed
Goldfarb 1972 {published data only}
    1. Goldfarb TL, Jarvik ME. Accommodation to restricted tobacco smoke intake in cigarette smokers. International Journal of the Addictions 1972;7(3):559‐65. - PubMed
Gosnell 2001 {published data only}
    1. Gosnell BA, Mitchell JE, Lancaster KL, Burgard MA, Wonderlich SA, Crosby RD. Food presentation and energy intake in a feeding laboratory study of subjects with binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2001;30(4):441‐6. - PubMed
Greenfield 1983 {published data only}
    1. Greenfield H, Maples J, Wills RBH. Salting of food ‐ a function of hole size and location of shakers. Nature 1983;301(5898):331‐2. - PubMed
Greenfield 1984 {published data only}
    1. Greenfield H, Smith AM, Wills RB. Influence of multi‐holed shakers on salting on food. Human Nutrition 1984;38(3):199‐201. - PubMed
Gritz 1976 {published data only}
    1. Gritz ER, Baer‐Weiss V, Jarvik ME. Titration of nicotine intake with full‐length and half‐length cigarettes. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1976;20(5):552‐6. - PubMed
Hackbart 2009 {published data only}
    1. Hackbart SJ, LeCheminant JD, Smith JD, Lox CL. The influence of an environmental cue and exercise on food consumption in college students. International Journal of Exercise Science 2009;2(2):3. - PMC - PubMed
Haisfield 2011 {published data only}
    1. Haisfield L, Fisher JO, Savage JS, Marini M, Birch LL. Influence of family‐style meals on young children's self‐selected portions and intake. Obesity 2011;19:S66‐7.
Hartstein 2008 {published data only}
    1. Hartstein J, Cullen KW, Reynolds KD, Harrell J, Resnicow K, Kennel P. Impact of portion‐size control for school a la carte items: changes in kilocalories and macronutrients purchased by middle school students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2008;108(1):140‐4. - PMC - PubMed
Head 1977 {published data only}
    1. Head MK, Weeks RJ. Conventional vs. formulated foods in school lunches. I. Comparison of students' food and nutrient intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1977;71(2):116‐23. - PubMed
Healthy Study Group 2009 {published data only}
    1. Healthy Study Group, Hirst K, Baranowski T, DeBar L, Foster GD, Kaufman F, Kennel P, et al. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi‐ethnic middle school students. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S4‐S20. - PMC - PubMed
Healthy Study Group 2012 {published data only}
    1. Healthy Study Group, Mobley CC, Stadler DD, Staten MA, Ghormli L, Gillis B, Hartstein J, et al. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school‐based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience. Journal of School Health 2012;82(2):82‐90. - PMC - PubMed
Higgins 1964 {published data only}
    1. Higgins IT. Length of cigarette ends and inhaling. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 1964;21:321‐3. - PMC - PubMed
Huyghe 2013 {published data only}
    1. Huyghe E, Kerckhove A. Can fat taxes and package size restrictions stimulate healthy food choices?. International Journal of Research in Marketing 2013;30:421‐3.
Jaeger 2011 {published data only}
    1. Jaeger SR, Harker R, Triggs CM, Gunson A, Campbell RL, Jackman R, et al. Determining consumer purchase intentions: the importance of dry matter, size, and price of kiwifruit. Journal of Food Science 2011;76(3):177‐84. - PubMed
Just 2014 (S1) {published data only}
    1. Just DR, Wansink B. One man's tall is another man's small: how the framing of portion size influences food choice. Health Economics 2014;23:776‐91. - PubMed
Just 2014 (S2) {published data only}
    1. Just DR, Wansink B. One man's tall is another man's small: how the framing of portion size influences food choice. Health Economics 2014;23:776‐91. - PubMed
Kallbekken 2013 {published data only}
    1. Kallbekken S, Saelen H. 'Nudging' hotel guests to reduce food waste as a win‐win environmental measure. Economics Letters 2013;119:325‐7.
Kesman 2011 {published data only}
    1. Kesman RL, Ebbert JO, Harris KI, Schroeder DR. Portion control for the treatment of obesity in the primary care setting. BMC Research Notes 2011;9(4):346. - PMC - PubMed
Kildegaard 2011 {published data only}
    1. Kildegaard H, Olsen A, Gabrielsen G, Moller P, Thybo AK. A method to measure the effect of food appearance factors on children's visual preferences. Food Quality and Preference 2011;22(8):763‐71.
Kozlowski 1989 {published data only}
    1. Kozlowski LT, Heatherton TF, Ferrence RG. Pack size, reported cigarette‐smoking rates, and the heaviness of smoking. Canadian Journal of Public Health‐Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique 1989;80(4):266‐70. - PubMed
Kral 2004b {published data only}
    1. Kral TVE, Rolls BJ. Energy density and portion size: their independent and combined effects on energy intake. Physiology & Behavior 2004;82(1):131‐8. - PubMed
Lawless 2003 {published data only}
    1. Lawless HT, Bender S, Oman C, Pelletier C. Gender, age, vessel size, cup vs. straw sipping, and sequence effects on sip volume. Dysphagia 2003;18(3):196‐202. - PubMed
Leidy 2010 {published data only}
    1. Leidy HJ, Apolzan JW, Mattes RD, Campbell WW. Food form and portion size affect postprandial appetite sensations and hormonal responses in healthy, nonobese, older adults. Obesity 2010;18(2):293‐9. - PMC - PubMed
Levitsky 2011 {published data only}
    1. Levitsky DA, Pacanowski C. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit. Appetite 2011;57(2):311‐7. - PubMed
Lewis 2013 {published data only}
    1. Lewis HB, Solis‐Trapala I, Jebb SA. The effect of covertly reducing portion size of a single meal on day‐long energy intake in overweight and obese adults. Obesity Facts 2013;6:139‐40.
Libotte 2014 {published data only}
    1. Libotte E, Siegrist M, Bucher T. The influence of plate size on meal composition. Literature review and experiment. Appetite 2014;82:91‐6. - PubMed
Liem 2009 {published data only}
    1. Liem DG, Zandstra LH. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: influence of shape and flavour. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2009;6:38. - PMC - PubMed
Lieux 1992 {published data only}
    1. Lieux EM, Manning CK. Evening meals selected by college students: impact of the foodservice system. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1992;92(5):560‐6. - PubMed
Lin 2013 {published data only}
    1. Lin H‐M, Lo H‐Y, Liao Y‐S. More than just a utensil: the influence of drinking straw size on perceived consumption. Marketing Letters 2013;24:381‐6.
Meguid 1998 {published data only}
    1. Meguid MM, Laviano A, Rossi‐Fanelli F. Food intake equals meal size times mean number. Appetite 1998;31(3):404. - PubMed
Mendoza 2010 {published data only}
    1. Mendoza JA, Watson K, Cullen KW. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas public school nutrition policy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010;110(3):434‐40. - PMC - PubMed
Olsen 2012 {published data only}
    1. Olsen A, Ritz C, Kramer L, Moller P. Serving styles of raw snack vegetables. What do children want?. Appetite 2012;59:556‐62. - PubMed
Pornpitakpan 2010 {published data only}
    1. Pornpitakpan C. How package sizes, fill amounts, and unit costs influence product usage amounts. Journal of Global Marketing 2010;23(4):275‐87.
Raghubir 1999 {published data only}
    1. Raghubir P, Krishna A. Vital dimensions in volume perception: can the eye fool the stomach?. Journal of Marketing Research 1999;36(3):313‐26.
Rolls 1982 {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Rowe EA, Rolls ET. How sensory properties of foods affect human feeding behavior. Physiology & Behavior 1982;29(3):409‐17. - PubMed
Rolls 1985 {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ. Experimental analyses of the effects of variety in a meal on human feeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;42:932‐9. - PubMed
Rolls 1990 {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Kim S, Fedoroff IC. Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men. Physiology & Behavior 1990;48(1):19‐26. - PubMed
Rolls 2012 {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ. High satiety: avoiding obesity in a super‐sized world. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice 2012;6:1.
Savage 2012 {published data only}
    1. Savage JS, Fisher JO, Marini M, Birch LL. Serving smaller age‐appropriate entree portions to children aged 3‐5 y increases fruit and vegetable intake and reduces energy density and energy intake at lunch. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012;95(2):335‐41. - PubMed
Saylor 1987 {published data only}
    1. Saylor JH. Volume of a swallow: role of orifice size and viscosity. Veterinary & Human Toxicology 1987;29(1):79‐83. - PubMed
Scheibehenne 2010 {published data only}
    1. Scheibehenne B, Todd PM, Wansink B. Dining in the dark. The importance of visual cues for food consumption and satiety. Appetite 2010;55(3):710‐3. - PubMed
Scisco 2012 (S1) {published data only}
    1. Scisco JL, Blades C, Zielinski MJ, Muth ER. Dividing a fixed portion into more pieces leads to larger portion size estimates of JELL‐O (R) squares. Perception 2012;41:988‐90. - PMC - PubMed
Scisco 2012 (S2) {published data only}
    1. Scisco JL, Blades C, Zielinski MJ, Muth ER. Dividing a fixed portion into more pieces leads to larger portion size estimates of JELL‐O (R) squares. Perception 2012;41:988‐90. - PMC - PubMed
Sharafi 2010 {published data only}
    1. Sharafi M. Children's Behavioral Responses to Portion Size [Master of Science Thesis]. Pennsylvania State University, 2010.
Spanos 2015 {published data only}
    1. Spanos S, Kenda AS, Vartanian LR. Can serving‐size labels reduce the portion‐size effect? A pilot study. Eating Behaviors 2015;16:40‐2. - PubMed
Spiegel 1993 {published data only}
    1. Spiegel TA, Kaplan JM, Tomassini A, Stellar E. Bite size, ingestion rate, and meal size in lean and obese women. Appetite 1993;21(2):131‐45. - PubMed
Spill 2011a {published data only}
    1. Spill MK, Birch LL, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Hiding vegetables to reduce energy density: an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;94(3):735‐41. - PMC - PubMed
Stepney 1977 {published data only}
    1. Stepney R. Behavioural regulation of nicotine intake in cigarette smokers presented with a ‘shortened’ cigarette. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society) 1977;4(5):653P. - PubMed
Tapsell 2014 {published data only}
    1. Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, Thorne RL, O'Shea JE, Grafenauer SJ, Probst YC. Weight loss effects from vegetable intake: a 12‐month randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014;68:778‐85. - PMC - PubMed
Ueland 2009 {published data only}
    1. Ueland O, Cardello AV, Merrill EP, Lesher LL. Effect of portion size information on food intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009;109(1):124‐7. - PubMed
Van Ittersum 2012 {published data only}
    1. Ittersum K, Wansink B. Plate size and color suggestibility: the Delboeuf illusion's bias on serving and eating behavior. Journal of Consumer Research 2012;39(2):215‐28.
Vermeer 2011 {published data only}
    1. Vermeer WM, Steenhuis IHM, Leeuwis FH, Heymans MW, Seidell JC. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35(9):1200‐7. - PMC - PubMed
Vermeer 2012a {published data only}
    1. Vermeer WM, Leeuwis FH, Koprulu S, Zouitni O, Seidell JC, Steenhuis IHM. The process evaluation of two interventions aimed at portion size in worksite cafeterias. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2012;25(2):180‐8. - PubMed
Walker 2014 {published data only}
    1. Walker D, Smarandescu L, Wansink B. Half full or empty: cues that lead wine drinkers to unintentionally overpour. Substance Use & Misuse 2014;49:295‐302. - PubMed
Wansink 2005a {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K. Shape of glass and amount of alcohol poured: comparative study of effect of practice and concentration. BMJ 2005;331(7531):1512‐4. - PMC - PubMed
Wansink 2005c {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Painter JE, North J. Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity Research 2005;13(1):93‐100. - PubMed
Wansink 2005e {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Cheney MM. Super bowls: serving bowl size and food consumption. JAMA ‐ Note: article retracted by JAMA September 2018 2005;293(14):1727‐8. - PubMed
Wansink 2007a {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K. Portion size me: downsizing our consumption norms. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2007;107(7):1103‐6. - PubMed
Weijzen 2008 {published data only}
    1. Weijzen PLG, Liem DG, Zandstra EH, Graaf C. Sensory specific satiety and intake: the difference between nibble‐ and bar‐size snacks. Appetite 2008;50:435‐42. - PubMed
Weijzen 2009 {published data only}
    1. Weijzen PL, Smeets PA, Graaf C. Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory‐specific satiation. British Journal of Nutrition 2009;7:1091‐7. - PubMed
White 2003 {published data only}
    1. White AM, Kraus CL, McCracken LA, Swartzwelder H. Do college students drink more than they think? Use of a free‐pour paradigm to determine how college students define standard drinks. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2003;27(11):1750‐6. - PubMed
Williams 2013 {published data only}
    1. Williams RA, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake. Appetite 2013;66:75‐83. - PMC - PubMed
Wilson 2013 {published data only}
    1. Wilson BM, Stolarz‐Fantino S, Fantino E. Regulating the way to obesity: unintended consequences of limiting sugary drink sizes. PloS One 2013;8(4):e61081. - PMC - PubMed
Woodson 1992 {published data only}
    1. Woodson PP, Griffiths RR. Control of cigarette smoking topography: smoke filtration and draw resistance. Behavioural Pharmacology 1992;3(2):99‐111. - PubMed
Yamauchi 2014 {published data only}
    1. Yamauchi K, Katayama T, Yamauchi T, Kotani K, Tsuzaki K, Takahashi K, et al. Efficacy of a 3‐month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese‐style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal 2014;13:108. - PMC - PubMed
Yang 2005 {published data only}
    1. Yang S, Raghubir P. Can bottles speak volumes? The effect of package shape on how much to buy. Journal of Retailing 2005;81(4):269‐81.
Yee 1979 {published data only}
    1. Yee RW. An analysis of beer consumption as a function of glass size and pitcher presence. Dissertation Abstracts International 1979;39:4081.
Yeomans 2009 {published data only}
    1. Yeomans MR, Gould NJ, Leitch M, Mobini S. Effects of energy density and portion size on development of acquired flavour liking and learned satiety. Appetite 2009;52(2):469‐78. - PubMed
Yip 2013 {published data only}
    1. Yip W, Wiessing KR, Budgett S, Poppitt SD. Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women. Appetite 2013;69:102‐7. - PubMed
Zijlstra 2009 {published data only}
    1. Zijlstra N, Wijk RA, Mars M, Stafleu A, Graaf C. Effect of bite size and oral processing time of a semisolid food on satiation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;90(2):269‐75. - PubMed

References to studies awaiting assessment

Bajaj 2014 {published data only}
    1. Bajaj D. Effect of number of food pieces on food selection and consumption in animals and humans. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2014; Vol. 74.
Haire 2014 {published data only}
    1. Haire C, Raynor HA. Weight status moderates the relationship between package size and food Intake. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2014;114:1251‐6. - PubMed
Kral 2014 {published data only}
    1. Kral TVE, Remiker AM, Strutz EM, Moore RH. Role of child weight status and the relative reinforcing value of food in children's response to portion size increases. Obesity 2014;22:1716‐22. - PMC - PubMed
Loney 2010 {published data only}
    1. Loney T, Lawton K, Allen D, Carter JM. Size matters! Effect of a school canteen portion size intervention on weight loss in obese Emirati adolescents. Obesity Reviews 2010;11(1):239 (T3: PO 54).
Marchiori 2014 {published data only}
    1. Marchiori D, Papies EK. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect. Appetite 2014;75:40‐5. - PubMed
Martinez 2010 {published data only}
    1. Martinez AG, Lopez‐Espinola A, Beltran C, Franco K, Diaz FJ, Cardenas A, et al. Portion size affects how much students consume in an eating occasion. Appetite 2010;54(3):661.
Rolls 2014a {published data only}
    1. Rolls BJ, Meengs JS, Roe LS. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2014;114:1411‐6. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Reshaping breakfast: the smaller the cereal flake, the greater the intake. FASEB Journal 2013;27:273.3.
Schmidt 2013 {published data only}
    1. Schmidt K, Rohden S, Guldborg H, Maaloe J, Perez‐Cueto FJA, Egberg M. Smaller plates, less food waste‐a choice architectural experiment in a self‐service eating setting. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2013;63:1754.
Skov 2013 {published data only}
    1. Skov LR, Schmidt K, Guldborg H, Lund S, Egberg M, Perez‐Cueto FJA. The smaller the piece the healthier consumption‐a choice architectural experiment in behavioural nutrition. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2013;63:1754.
Smith 2013a {published data only}
    1. Smith L, Conroy K, Wen H, Rui L, Humphries D. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6‐year‐old and 4‐year‐old children in Kunming, China. Appetite 2013;69:31‐8. - PMC - PubMed
van Ittersum 2013 {published data only}
    1. Ittersum K, Wansink B. Extraverted children are more biased by bowl sizes than introverts. PloS One 2013;8:e78224. - PMC - PubMed
van Kleef 2014 {published data only}
    1. Kleef E, Kavvouris C, Trijp HCM. The unit size effect of indulgent food: how eating smaller sized items signals impulsivity and makes consumers eat less. Psychology & Health 2014;29:1081‐103. - PubMed
Wansink 2013 {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Just DR, Hanks AS, Smith LE. Pre‐sliced fruit in school cafeterias: children's selection and intake. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2013;44:477‐80. - PubMed
Wansink 2014 {published data only}
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K, Payne CR. Larger bowl size increases the amount of cereal children request, consume, and waste. Journal of Pediatrics 2014;164:323‐6. - PubMed
Williams 2014 {published data only}
    1. Williams RA, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Assessment of satiety depends on the energy density and portion size of the test meal. Obesity 2014;22:318‐24. - PMC - PubMed

Additional references

Anderson 2011
    1. Anderson LM, Petticrew M, Rehfuess E, Armstrong R, Ueffing E, Baker P, et al. Using logic models to capture complexity in systematic reviews. Research Synthesis Methods 2011;2:33‐42. - PubMed
Anderson 2013
    1. Anderson LM, Oliver SR, Michie S, Rehfuess E, Noyes J, Shemilt I. Investigating complexity in systematic reviews of interventions by using a spectrum of methods. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2013;66:1223‐9. - PubMed
Beasley 2009
    1. Beasley JM, Ange BA, Anderson CA, Miller ER, Erlinger TP, Holbrook JT, et al. Associations between macronutrient intake and self‐reported appetite and fasting levels of appetite hormones: results from the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;169(7):893‐900. - PMC - PubMed
Bell 1998
    1. Bell EA, Castellanos VH, Pelkman CL, Thorwart ML, Rolls BJ. Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal‐weight women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;67:412‐20. - PubMed
Birch 1991
    1. Birch LL, Johnson SL, Andresen G, Peters JC, Schulte MC. The variability of young children's energy intake. New England Journal of Medicine 1991;324(4):232‐5. - PubMed
Blundell 2010
    1. Mela D, Salah D, Schuring E, Knaap H, Westerterp M. Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obesity Reviews 2010;11(3):251‐70. - PMC - PubMed
Brennan 2012
    1. Brennan IM, Luscombe‐Marsh ND, Seimon RV, Otto B, Horowitz M, Wishart JM, et al. Effects of fat, protein, and carbohydrate and protein load on appetite, plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, and ghrelin, and energy intake in lean and obese men. American Journal of Physiology ‐ Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2012;303(1):G129‐40. - PubMed
Brozek 2008 [Computer program]
    1. Brozek J, Oxman A, Schünemann H. GRADEpro. Version 3.2 for Windows. Brozek J, Oxman A, Schünemann H, 2008.
Bryden 2013
    1. Bryden A, Petticrew M, Mays N, Eastmure E, Knai C. Voluntary agreements between government and business—a scoping review of the literature with specific reference to the Public Health Responsibility Deal. Health Policy 2013;110(2‐3):186‐97. - PubMed
Burton 2007
    1. Burton P, Smit HJ, Lightowler HJ. The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating. Appetite 2007;49(1):191‐7. - PubMed
Cohen 1988
    1. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd Edition. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1988.
Cooper 2003
    1. Cooper Z, Fairburn CG. Refining the definition of binge eating disorder and non‐purging bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2003;34(S1):S89‐S95. - PubMed
Das 2012
    1. Das P, Horton R. Rethinking our approach to physical activity. Lancet 2012;380(9838):189‐90. - PubMed
Deeks 2011
    1. Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG (editors). Chapter 9: Analysing data and undertaking meta‐analyses. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane‐handbook.org.
DEFRA 2013
    1. Department for Environment, Food, Rural Affairs. Family Food 2013. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2014.
Department of Health 2011
    1. Department of Health. Statement of the Calorie Reduction Expert Group (Policy Paper). https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/statement‐of‐the‐calorie‐reduction‐expert‐group (accessed 7 January 2015) 2011.
Diepeveen 2013
    1. Diepeveen S, Ling T, Suhrcke M, Roland M, Marteau TM. Public acceptability of government intervention to change health‐related behaviours: a systematic review and narrative synthesis. BMC Public Health 2013;13:756. - PMC - PubMed
Diliberti 2004
    1. Diliberti N, Bordi PL, Conklin MT, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obesity Research 2004;12(3):562‐8. - PubMed
Doucet 2008
    1. Doucet E, Laviolette M, Imbeault P, Strychar I, Rabasa‐Lhoret R, Prud'homme D. Total peptide YY is a correlate of postprandial energy expenditure but not of appetite or energy intake in healthy women. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2008;57(10):1458‐64. - PubMed
Drewnowski 2013
    1. Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Constant F. Water and beverage consumption among adults in the United States: cross‐sectional study using data from NHANES 2005–2010. BMC Public Health 2013;13:1068. - PMC - PubMed
Egger 1997
    1. Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minde C. Bias in meta‐analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629‐34. - PMC - PubMed
Ello‐Martin 2005
    1. Ello‐Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82:236S‐41S. - PubMed
European Union 2014
    1. European Union. Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU). Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/products/index_en.htm.
Fairburn 1993
    1. Fairburn CG, Cooper Z. The eating disorder examination. In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT editor(s). Binge Eating: Nature, Assessment, and Treatment. 12th Edition. New York, NY: Guilford, 1993:317‐32.
Fone 2013
    1. Fone DL, Farewell DM, White J, Lyons RA, Dunstan FD. Socioeconomic patterning of excess alcohol consumption and binge drinking: a cross‐sectional study of multilevel associations with neighbourhood deprivation. BMJ Open 2014;3:e002337. - PMC - PubMed
Food Standards Agency 2002
    1. Food Standards Agency. Food Portion Sizes. 3rd Edition. Food Standards Agency, 2002.
Freudenberg 2014
    1. Freudenberg N. Lethal But Legal: Corporations, Consumption, and Protecting Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Fyfe 2010
    1. Fyfe CL, Stewart J, Murison SD, Jackson DM, Rance K, Speakman JR, et al. Evaluating energy intake measurement in free‐living subjects: when to record and for how long?. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(2):172‐80. - PubMed
Gabbatt 2013
    1. Gabbatt A. New York City soda ban struck down by judge in eleventh‐hour ruling. The Guardian 2013 Mar 11.
Gardner 2014
    1. Gardner MP, Wansink B, Kim J, Park S‐B. Better moods for better eating? How mood influences food choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology 2014;24(3):320‐35.
Garner 1982
    1. Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Bohr Y, Garfinkel PE. The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine 1982;12:871‐8. - PubMed
Geier 2006
    1. Geier AB, Rozin P, Doros G. A new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychological Science 2006;17(6):521‐5. - PubMed
Giskes 2010
    1. Giskes K, Avendano M, Brug J, Kunst AE. A systematic review of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in dietary intakes associated with weight gain and overweight/obesity conducted among European adults. Obesity Reviews 2010;11(6):413‐29. - PubMed
Godfrey 2009
    1. Godfrey C, Rice N, Slack R, Sowden A, Worthy G. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Price on the Smoking Behaviour of Young People. York: Public Health Research Consortium, University of York, 2009.
Gormally 1982
    1. Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, Rardin D. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addictive Behaviors 1982;7(1):47‐55. - PubMed
Grant 2013
    1. Grant SP, Mayo‐Wilson E, Melendez‐Torres GJ, Montgomery P. Reporting quality of social and psychological intervention trials: a systematic review of reporting guidelines and trial publications. PloS One 2013;8:e65442. - PMC - PubMed
Grossniklaus 2010
    1. Grossniklaus DA, Dunbar SB, Tohill BC, Gary R, Higgins MK, Frediani J. Psychological factors are important correlates of dietary pattern in overweight adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2010;25(6):450‐60. - PMC - PubMed
Grynbaum 2012
    1. Grynbaum M. Soda makers begin their push against New York ban. New York Times 2012; Vol. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/02/nyregion/in‐fight‐against‐nyc‐soda‐ban‐industry‐focuses‐on‐personal‐choice.html.
Guyatt 2011
    1. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Sultan S, Glasziou P, Akl EA, Alonso‐Coello P, et al and The GRADE Working Group. GRADE guidelines: 9. Rating up the quality of evidence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2011;64:1311‐6. - PubMed
Han 2013
    1. Han E, Powell LM. Consumption patterns of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2013;113(1):43‐53. - PMC - PubMed
Harbord 2008
    1. Harbord RM, Higgins JPT. Meta–regression in Stata. The Stata Journal 2008;8(4):493‐519.
Harnack 2000
    1. Harnack LJ, Jeffery RW, Boutelle KN. Temporal trends in energy intake in the United States: an ecologic perspective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71:1478‐84. - PubMed
Harris 2008
    1. Harris RJ, Bradburn MJ, Deeks JJ, Harbord RM, Altman DG, Sterne JAC. metan: fixed‐ and random‐effects meta‐analysis. The Stata Journal 2008;8(1):3‐28.
Herman 1980
    1. Herman CP, Polivy J. Restrained eating. In: Stunkard A editor(s). Obesity. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1980:208‐25.
Herman 2008
    1. Herman CP. Obese externality. In: Darrity WA editor(s). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2nd Edition. Vol. 6, Farmington, MI: Thomas/Gale Publishers, 2008.
Herman 2015
    1. Herman CP, Polivy J, Pliner P, Vartanian LR. Mechanisms underlying the portion‐size effect. Physiology & Behavior 2015;144:129‐36. - PubMed
Higgins 2011a
    1. Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane‐handbook.org.
Higgins 2011b
    1. Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne JAC (editors). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane‐handbook.org.
Hoffmann 2014
    1. Hoffmann T, Glasziou P, Boutron I, Milne R, Perera R, Moher D, et al. Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. BMJ 2014;348:g1687. - PubMed
Hollands 2013a
    1. Hollands GJ, Shemilt I, Marteau TM, Jebb SA, Kelly MP, Nakamura R, et al. Altering micro‐environments to change population health behaviour: towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions. BMC Public Health 2013;13:1218. - PMC - PubMed
Hollands 2013b
    1. Hollands GJ, Shemilt I, Marteau TM, Jebb SA, Kelly MP, Nakamura R, et al. Altering Choice Architecture to Change Population Health Behaviour: a Large‐Scale Conceptual and Empirical Scoping Review of Interventions Within Micro‐Environments. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2013.
Hollands 2014
    1. Hollands GJ, Shemilt I, Marteau TM, Jebb SA, Lewis HB, Wei Y, et al. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011045] - DOI - PMC - PubMed
Holmes 2014
    1. Holmes J, Meng Y, Meier PS, Brennan A, Angus C, Campbell‐Burton A, et al. Effects of minimum unit pricing for alcohol on different income and socioeconomic groups: a modelling study. Lancet 2014;383(9929):1655‐64. - PMC - PubMed
Hsiao 2013
    1. Hsiao A, Wang YC. Reducing sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption: evidence, policies, and economics. Current Obesity Reports 2013;2:191‐9.
Huang 2015
    1. Huang TTK, Cawley JH, Ashe M, Costa SA, Frerichs LM, Zwicker L, et al. Mobilisation of public support for policy actions to prevent obesity. Lancet 2015;385(9985):2422‐31. - PubMed
Institute of Grocery Distribution 2008
    1. Institute of Grocery Distribution. Portion Size: A Review of Existing Approaches. Watford: Institute of Grocery Distribution, 2008.
Jackson 2009
    1. Jackson T. Prosperity Without Growth? The Transition to a Sustainable Economy. London: Sustainable Development Commission, 2014.
Kaner 2009
    1. Kaner EFS, Dickinson HO, Beyer F, Pienaar E, Schlesinger C, Campbell F, et al. The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care settings: a systematic review. Drug and Alcohol Review 2009;28(3):301‐23. - PubMed
Kozlowski 1986
    1. Kozlowski LT. Pack size, reported cigarette smoking rates, and public health. American Journal of Public Health 1986;76(11):1337‐8. - PMC - PubMed
Kutner 2006
    1. Kutner M, Greenberg E, Jin Y, Paulsen C. The health literacy of America’s adults: results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006–483; U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics 2006.
Lemmens 2011
    1. Lemmens SG, Martens EA, Born JM, Martens MJ, Westerterp‐Plantenga MS. Staggered meal consumption facilitates appetite control without affecting postprandial energy intake. Journal of Nutrition 2011;141(3):482‐8. - PubMed
Lewis 2012
    1. Lewis HB, Ahern AL, Jebb SA. How much should I eat? A comparison of suggested portion sizes in the UK. Public Health Nutrition 2012;15(11):2110‐7. - PMC - PubMed
Lewis 2015
    1. Lewis HB, Ahern AL, Solis‐Trapala I, Walker CG, Reimann F, Gribble FM, et al. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults. Obesity 2015;23(7):1362‐70. [DOI: 10.1002/oby.21105] - DOI - PubMed
Lindroos 1997
    1. Lindroos AK, Lissner L, Mathiassen ME, Karlsson J, Sullivan M, Bengtsson C, et al. Dietary intake in relation to restrained eating, disinhibition, and hunger in obese and nonobese Swedish women. Obesity Research 1997;5(3):175‐82. - PubMed
Lorenc 2013
    1. Lorenc T, Petticrew M, Welch V, Tugwell P. What types of interventions generate inequalities? Evidence from systematic reviews. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2013;67(2):190‐3. - PubMed
Marteau 2012
    1. Marteau TM, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC. Changing human behaviour to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science 2012;337(6101):1492‐5. - PubMed
Martins 2007
    1. Martins C, Truby H, Morgan LM. Short‐term appetite control in response to a 6‐week exercise programme in sedentary volunteers. British Journal of Nutrition 2007;98(4):834‐42. - PubMed
Mayo‐Wilson 2013
    1. Mayo‐Wilson E, Grant S, Hopewell S, Macdonald G, Moher D, Montgomery P. Developing a reporting guideline for social and psychological intervention trials. Trials 2013;14:242. - PMC - PubMed
McKinsey Global Institute 2014
    1. Dobbs R, Sawers C, Thompson F, Manyika J, Woetzel J, Child P, et al. Overcoming obesity: an initial economic analysis. McKinsey Global Institute 2014.
Moher 2009
    1. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The Prisma Group. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Medicine 2009;6(7):e1000097. - PMC - PubMed
Monteleone 2003
    1. Monteleone P, Bencivenga R, Longobardi N, Serritella C, Maj M. Differential responses of circulating ghrelin to high‐fat or high‐carbohydrate meal in healthy women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2003;88(11):5510‐4. - PubMed
Montgomery 2013
    1. Montgomery P, Grant S, Hopewell S, Macdonald G, Moher D, Michie S, et al. Protocol for CONSORT‐SPI: an extension for social and psychological interventions. Implementation Science 2013;8:99. - PMC - PubMed
National Centre for Social Research 2012
    1. National Centre for Social Research. National Diet and Nutrition Survey Years 1‐4, 2008/09‐2011/12. London: National Centre for Social Research 2012.
Neal 2006
    1. Neal DT, Wood W, Quinn JM. Habits—a repeat performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2006;15:198‐202.
NICE 2008
    1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Preventing the uptake of smoking by children and young people (NICE public health guidance 14, updated November 204). London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2008.
NICE 2014
    1. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: Guidance on the prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children (NICE Guidelines [CG43] ‐ Updated 2014). London: National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, 2014.
Office for National Statistics 2012
    1. Office for National Statistics. Opinions and Lifestyle Survey, December 2012. London: Office for National Statistics 2012.
Petrescu under review
    1. Petrescu D, Hollands GH, Ng Y, Marteau TM. Public acceptability in the UK and USA of nudging to reduce obesity: the example of reducing sugary drinks consumption. PLoS One Under review. - PMC - PubMed
Piaget 1969
    1. Piaget J. The Mechanisms of Perception. London: Rutledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.
Pierce 2012
    1. Pierce JP, White VM, Emery SL. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?. Tobacco Control 2012;21:258‐64. - PubMed
Polivy 1986
    1. Polivy J, Herman CP, Hackett R, Kuleshnyk I. The effects of self‐attention and public attention on eating in restrained and unrestrained subjects. Journal of Perspectives in Social Psychology 1986;50:1203‐24. - PubMed
Pratt 2012
    1. Pratt IS, Croager EJ, Rosenberg M. The mathematical relationship between dishware size and portion size. Appetite 2012;58(1):299‐302. - PubMed
Provencher 2003
    1. Provencher V, Drapeau V, Tremblay A, Després JP, Lemieux S. Eating behaviors and indexes of body composition in men and women from the Québec family study. Obesity Research 2003;11(6):783‐92. - PubMed
Rayner 2005
    1. Rayner M, Scarborough P, Stockley L, Boxer A. Nutrient Profiles: Further Refinement and Testing of Model SSCg3d. London: Food Standards Agency. London, 2005.
Rehm 2015
    1. Rehm J, Gmel G, Probst C, Shield KD. Lifetime‐risk of alcohol‐attributable mortality based on different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries. Implications for low‐risk drinking guidelines. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 2015.
Reinbach 2010
    1. Reinbach HC, Martinussen T, Møller P. Effects of hot spices on energy intake, appetite and sensory specific desires in humans. Food Quality and Preference 2010;21:655–661.
Robinson 2014
    1. Robinson E, Nolan S, Tudur‐Smith C, Boyland EJ, Harrold JA, Hardman CA, et al. Will smaller plates lead to smaller waists? A systematic review and meta‐analysis of the effect that experimental manipulation of dishware size has on energy consumption. Obesity Reviews 2014;15:812–21. - PubMed
Rodin 1981
    1. Rodin J. Current status of the internal‐external hypothesis for obesity. What went wrong?. American Psychologist 1981;36:361‐72. - PubMed
Rolls 1988
    1. Rolls BJ, Hetherington M, Burley VJ. The specificity of satiety: the influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety. Physiology & Behavior 1988;43(2):145‐53. - PubMed
Rolls 1999
    1. Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Castellanos VH, Chow M, Pelkman CL, Thorwart ML. Energy density but not fat content of foods affected energy intake in lean and obese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69:863‐71. - PubMed
Rolls 2009
    1. Rolls BJ. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiology and Behavior 2009;14(5):609‐15. - PMC - PubMed
Rolls 2014b
    1. Rolls BJ. What is the role of portion control in weight management?. International Journal of Obesity 2014;38:S1‐8. - PMC - PubMed
Russell 1980
    1. Russell MAH, Sutton SR, Feyerabend C, Saloojee Y. Smokers' response to shortened cigarettes: dose reduction without dilution of tobacco smoke. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1980;27(2):210‐8. - PubMed
Rychetnik 2002
    1. Rychetnik L, Frommer M, Hawe P, Shiell A. Criteria for evaluating evidence on public health interventions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2002;56(2):119‐27. - PMC - PubMed
Schünemann 2011
    1. Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ, Glasziou P, Guyatt GH. Chapter 12: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane‐handbook.org.
Scisco 2012
    1. Scisco JL, Blades C, Zielinski MJ, Muth ER. Dividing a fixed portion into more pieces leads to larger portion size estimates of JELL‐O® squares. Perception 2012;41:988‐90. - PMC - PubMed
Shah 2011
    1. Shah M, Schroeder R, Winn W, Adams‐Huet B. A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2011;24(6):612‐5. - PubMed
Skidelsky 2013
    1. Skidelsky R, Skidelsky E. How Much is Enough?: Money and the Good Life. New York, NY: Other Press, 2013.
Small 2013
    1. Small L, Lane H, Vaughan L, Melnyk B, McBurnett D. A systematic review of the evidence: the effects of portion size manipulation with children and portion education/training interventions on dietary intake with adults. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing 2013;10(2):69‐81. - PubMed
Smith 2013b
    1. Smith LP, Ng S‐W, Popkin BM. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008. Nutrition Journal 2013;12:45. - PMC - PubMed
Spanos 2015
    1. Spanos S, Kenda AS, Vartanian LR. Can serving‐size labels reduce the portion‐size effect? A pilot study. Eating Behaviors 2015;16(0):40‐2. - PubMed
Spears 2010
    1. Spears D. Economic decision‐making in poverty depletes behavioral control. CEPS Working Paper 2010.
Steenhuis 2009
    1. Steenhuis I, Vermeer W. Portion size: review and framework for interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2009;6(1):58‐67. - PMC - PubMed
Stewart 2011
    1. Stewart LA, Tierney JF, Clarke M. Chapter 19: Reviews of individual patient data. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane‐handbook.org.
Stunkard 1985
    1. Stunkard AJ, Messick S. The three‐factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1985;29(1):71‐83. - PubMed
Tedstone 2014
    1. Tedstone A, Anderson S, Allen R. Sugar reduction: responding to the challenge. London: Public Health England 2014.
Thomas 2010 [Computer program]
    1. Thomas J, Brunton J, Graziosi S. EPPI‐Reviewer 4.0: software for research synthesis. EPPI‐Centre Software. London: Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, 2010.
United Nations 2014
    1. United Nations. Outcome document of the high‐level meeting of the General Assembly on the comprehensive review and assessment of the progress achieved in the prevention and control of non‐communicable diseases. New York: United Nations, 2014:2.
USFDA 2014
    1. US Food, Drug Administration. Chapter I: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services; Subchapter B ‐ Food for Human Consumption (Title 21, Volume 2, 21CFR101.12, Revised April 1, 2014). Code of Federal Regulations ‐ Title 21 2014; Vol. 2.
Van Strien 1986
    1. Strien T, Frijters JER, Bergers GPA, Defares PB. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behavior. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1986;5(2):295‐315.
Versluis 2015
    1. Versluis I, Papies EK, Marchiori D. Preventing the pack size effect: exploring the effectiveness of pictorial and non‐pictorial serving size recommendations. Appetite 2015;87(0):116‐26. - PubMed
Wagenaar 2009
    1. Wagenaar AC, Salois MJ, Komro KA. Effects of beverage alcohol price and tax levels on drinking: a meta‐analysis of 1003 estimates from 112 studies. Addiction 2009;104(2):179‐90. - PubMed
Wallis 2009
    1. Wallis DJ, Hetherington MM. Emotions and eating. Self‐reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress. Appetite 2009;52(2):355‐62. - PubMed
Wang 2009
    1. Wang Y‐C, Ludwig DS, Sonneville K, Gortmaker SL. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1009;163(4):336‐43. - PubMed
Wansink 2005
    1. Wansink B, Ittersum K. Shape of glass and amount of alcohol poured: comparative study of effect of practice and concentration. BMJ 2005;331(7531):1512‐4. - PMC - PubMed
Wansink 2007b
    1. Wansink B, Payne CR, Chandon P. Internal and external cues of meal cessation: the French paradox redux?. Obesity 2007;15(12):2920‐4. - PubMed
Welch 2012
    1. Welch V, Petticrew M, Tugwell P, Moher D, O'Neill J, Waters E, et al. and the PRISMA‐Equity Bellagio Group. PRISMA‐Equity 2012 Extension: Reporting Guidelines for Systematic Reviews with a Focus on Health Equity. PLoS Medicine 2012;9(10):e1001333. - PMC - PubMed
Welsh 2011
    1. Welsh JA, Sharma AJ, Grellinger L, Vos MB. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;94(3):726‐34. - PMC - PubMed
White 2011
    1. White IR. Multivariate random‐effects meta‐regression: updates to mvmeta. Stata Journal 2011;11(2):255‐70.
Williams 2003
    1. Williams J, Clemens S, Oleinikova K, Tarvin K. The skills for life survey: a national needs and impact survey of literacy, numeracy and ICT skills. Norwich: Department of Education and Skills 2003.
World Health Organization 2003
    1. World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.
World Health Organization 2014a
    1. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization 2014:88.
World Health Organization 2014b
    1. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization 2014:46.
Yeomans 2001
    1. Yeomans MR, Lee MD, Gray RW, French SJ. Effects of test‐meal palatability on compensatory eating following disguised fat and carbohydrate preloads. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2001;25(8):1215‐24. - PubMed
Young 2002
    1. Young L, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92:246‐9. - PMC - PubMed
Young 2012
    1. Young LR, Nestle M. Reducing portion sizes to prevent obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2012;43(5):565‐8. - PubMed
Zlatevska 2014
    1. Zlatevska N, Dubelaar C, Holden SS. Sizing up the effect of portion size on consumption: a meta‐analytic review. Journal of Marketing 2014;78:140‐54.
Zung 1986
    1. Zung WWK. Zung Self‐Rating Depression Scale and Depression Status Inventory. In: Sartorius N, Ban TA editor(s). Assessment of Depression. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, 1986:221‐31.
Feedback