Pediatric Origins of Nephrolithiasis-Associated Atherosclerosis

J Pediatr. 2015 Nov;167(5):1074-80.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.08.014. Epub 2015 Sep 11.


Objectives: To determine if nephrolithiasis-associated atherosclerosis has pediatric origins and to consider possible association between kidney stones and atherosclerosis-related proteins.

Study design: We matched children aged 12-17 years with kidney stones and without kidney stones. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured by ultrasound. Participants' urine was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the atherosclerosis-related proteins fibronectin 1, macrophage scavenger receptor 1, osteopontin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 levels, and normalized to urine creatinine levels.

Results: Subjects with nephrolithiasis had higher cIMT in the right common carotid artery and overall mean measurement. Urine osteopontin and fibronectin 1 were significant predictors of cIMT.

Conclusions: We have provided initial preliminary evidence that nephrolithiasis-associated atherosclerosis has pediatric origins and performed studies that begin to identify potential reasons for the association of nephrolithiasis and vascular disease.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Atherosclerosis / diagnosis
  • Atherosclerosis / etiology*
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
  • Child
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Fibronectins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nephrolithiasis / complications*
  • Nephrolithiasis / diagnosis
  • Nephrolithiasis / metabolism
  • Osteopontin / metabolism
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Scavenger Receptors, Class A / metabolism
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • FN1 protein, human
  • Fibronectins
  • MSR1 protein, human
  • Scavenger Receptors, Class A
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Osteopontin