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Observational Study
, 61 (11), 1637-44

Antibody Responses After Primary Immunization in Infants Born to Women Receiving a Pertussis-Containing Vaccine During Pregnancy: Single Arm Observational Study With a Historical Comparator

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Observational Study

Antibody Responses After Primary Immunization in Infants Born to Women Receiving a Pertussis-Containing Vaccine During Pregnancy: Single Arm Observational Study With a Historical Comparator

Shamez N Ladhani et al. Clin Infect Dis.

Erratum in

Abstract

Introduction: In England, antenatal pertussis immunization using a tetanus/low-dose diphtheria/5-component acellular-pertussis/inactivated-polio (TdaP5/IPV) vaccine was introduced in October 2012. We assessed infant responses to antigens in the maternal vaccine and to those conjugated to tetanus (TT) or the diphtheria toxin variant, CRM.

Methods: Infants of 141 TdaP5/IPV-vaccinated mothers in Southern England immunized with DTaP5/IPV/Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib-TT) vaccine at 2-3-4 months, 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13, CRM-conjugated) at 2-4 months and 1 or 2 meningococcal C vaccine (MCC-CRM- or MCC-TT) doses at 3-4 months had blood samples taken at 2 and/or 5 months of age.

Results: Antibody responses to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae 2 + 3 (FIMs), diphtheria, tetanus, Hib, MCC and PCV13 serotypes were compared to responses in a historical cohort of 246 infants born to mothers not vaccinated in pregnancy. Infants had high pertussis antibody concentrations pre-immunization but only PT antibodies increased post-immunization (fold-change, 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-3.30; P < .001), whereas FHA antibodies fell (fold-change, 0.56; 95% CI, .48-.65; P < .001). Compared with infants of unvaccinated mothers, PT, FHA, and FIMs antibodies were lower post-vaccination, with fold-differences of 0.67 (0.58-0.77; P < .001), 0.62 (0.54-0.71; P < .001) and 0.51 (0.42-0.62; P < .001), respectively. Antibodies to diphtheria and some CRM-conjugated antigens were also lower, although most infants achieved protective thresholds; antibodies to tetanus and Hib were higher.

Conclusions: Antenatal pertussis immunization results in high infant pre-immunization antibody concentrations, but blunts subsequent responses to pertussis vaccine and some CRM-conjugated antigens. In countries with no pertussis booster until school age, continued monitoring of protection against pertussis is essential.

Keywords: antenatal immunization; conjugate vaccines; immune interference; maternal vaccination; pertussis.

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