Identification of a Novel Human Papillomavirus, Type HPV199, Isolated from a Nasopharynx and Anal Canal, and Complete Genomic Characterization of Papillomavirus Species Gamma-12

PLoS One. 2015 Sep 16;10(9):e0138628. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138628. eCollection 2015.


The novel human papillomavirus type 199 (HPV199) was initially identified in a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained from a 25 year-old immunocompetent male. The complete genome of HPV199 is 7,184 bp in length with a GC content of 36.5%. Comparative genomic characterization of HPV199 and its closest relatives showed the classical genomic organization of Gammapapillomaviruses (Gamma-PVs). HPV199 has seven major open reading frames (ORFs), encoding five early (E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) proteins, while lacking the E5 ORF. The long control region (LCR) of 513 bp is located between the L1 and E6 ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis additionally confirmed that HPV-199 clusters into the Gamma-PV genus, species Gamma-12, additionally containing HPV127, HV132, HPV148, HPV165, and three putative HPV types: KC5, CG2 and CG3. HPV199 is most closely related to HPV127 (nucleotide identity 77%). The complete viral genome sequence of additional HPV199 isolate was determined from anal canal swab sample. Two HPV199 complete viral sequences exhibit 99.4% nucleotide identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first member of Gamma-PV with complete nucleotide sequences determined from two independent clinical samples. To evaluate the tissue tropism of the novel HPV type, 916 clinical samples were tested using HPV199 type-specific real-time PCR: HPV199 was detected in 2/76 tissue samples of histologically confirmed common warts, 2/108 samples of eyebrow hair follicles, 2/137 anal canal swabs obtained from individuals with clinically evident anal pathology, 4/184 nasopharyngeal swabs and 3/411 cervical swabs obtained from women with normal cervical cytology. Although HPV199 was found in 1.4% of cutaneous and mucosal samples only, it exhibits dual tissue tropism. According to the results of our study and literature data, dual tropism of all Gamma-12 members is highly possible.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anal Canal / virology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Female
  • Gammapapillomavirus / genetics
  • Gammapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Gammapapillomavirus / pathogenicity
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nasopharynx / virology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / genetics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Viral Proteins / genetics
  • Young Adult


  • DNA, Viral
  • Viral Proteins

Grant support

This work is the result of PhD research and is financially supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS), which funded AO through the Young Researcher Training Program, and in part by the CoheaHr Project (European Commission FP7 Program, grant number: 603019) (MP). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.