Comparison of HPV prevalence between HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young adult women (20-26 years)

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015;11(10):2337-44. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2015.1066948.


There is some concern about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine among young adult women due to the risk of prior HPV infection. This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 data to evaluate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination among women 20-26 years of age who were vaccinated after 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study examined 878 young adult women (20-26 years) with complete information on HPV prevalence and HPV vaccination status from NHANES 2007-2012. Vaginal swab specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were used to compare type-specific HPV prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. A total of 21.4% of young adult women surveyed through NHANES between 2007 and 2012 received the HPV vaccine. Vaccinated women had a lower prevalence of vaccine types than unvaccinated women (7.4% vs 17.1%, prevalence ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88). The prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types was higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (52.1% vs 40.4%, prevalence ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57), but this difference was attenuated after adjusting for sexual behavior variables (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43). HPV vaccination was effective against all 4 vaccine types in young women vaccinated after age 12. However, vaccinated women had a higher prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types, suggesting that they may benefit from newer vaccines covering additional types.

Keywords: HPV vaccine; high-risk type; human papillomavirus (HPV); oncogenic virus; prevalence.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Genotyping Techniques
  • Humans
  • Papillomaviridae / classification
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prevalence
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Vagina / virology
  • Young Adult


  • DNA, Viral
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines