Prescription monitoring programs (PMPs), state-level databases that collect patient-specific prescription information at the time medications are dispensed, have been suggested as tools to address the overdose epidemic. We reviewed all laws in the United States (n = 25) that articulated the purposes PMPs are intended to serve. Attributes related to reducing abuse, misuse, and diversion of prescription medications appeared most commonly. Only 5 purpose statements mentioned the promotion of public health as goals of the PMP, and only 3 listed improving health care. None listed overdose prevention as a goal of the PMP.