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. 2015 Dec;6(6):539-52.
doi: 10.1017/S2040174415001488. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Sex-dependent Effects of Developmental Exposure to Bisphenol A and Ethinyl Estradiol on Metabolic Parameters and Voluntary Physical Activity

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Free PMC article

Sex-dependent Effects of Developmental Exposure to Bisphenol A and Ethinyl Estradiol on Metabolic Parameters and Voluntary Physical Activity

S A Johnson et al. J Dev Orig Health Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) have received considerable attention as potential obesogens. Past studies examining obesogenic potential of one widespread EDC, bisphenol A (BPA), have generally focused on metabolic and adipose tissue effects. However, physical inactivity has been proposed to be a leading cause of obesity. A paucity of studies has considered whether EDC, including BPA, affects this behavior. To test whether early exposure to BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE, estrogen present in birth control pills) results in metabolic and such behavioral disruptions, California mice developmentally exposed to BPA and EE were tested as adults for energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), body composition (echoMRI) and physical activity (measured by beam breaks and voluntary wheel running). Serum glucose and metabolic hormones were measured. No differences in body weight or food consumption were detected. BPA-exposed females exhibited greater variation in weight than females in control and EE groups. During the dark and light cycles, BPA females exhibited a higher average respiratory quotient than control females, indicative of metabolizing carbohydrates rather than fats. Various assessments of voluntary physical activity in the home cage confirmed that during the dark cycle, BPA and EE-exposed females were significantly less active in this setting than control females. Similar effects were not observed in BPA or EE-exposed males. No significant differences were detected in serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Results suggest that females developmentally exposed to BPA exhibit decreased motivation to engage in voluntary physical activity and altered metabolism of carbohydrates v. fats, which could have important health implications.

Keywords: BPA; California mouse; DOHaD; EDC; exercise.

Conflict of interest statement

None.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Total amount eaten and eating episodes, (a) Total amount eaten for females, (b) Total amount eaten for males, (c) Feeding episodes for females, (d) Feeding episodes for males. *P = 0.04. BPA, bisphenol A; EE, ethinyl estradiol.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Body weight and energy expenditure. (a) Body weight for females and males. (b) Total energy expenditure for females. (c) Total energy expenditure for males. *P = 0.02. BPA, bisphenol A; EE, ethinyl estradiol.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Respiratory quotient (RQ). (a) Average RQ for females. (b) Average RQ for males. (c) Resting RQ for 30 min of lowest activity (R_RQ_30) for females. (d) R_RQ_30 for males. *P≤0.05, **P = 0.01. BPA bisphenol A EE, ethinyl estradiol.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
XYZ beam breaks and total distance traveled. (a) XYZ beam breaks for females. (b) XYZ beam breaks for males. (c) Total distance traveled for females. (d) Total distance traveled for males. *P≤0.05, **P = 0.0003. BPA bisphenol A; EE, ethinyl estradiol.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Average walking speed. (a) Walking speed for females. (b) Walking speed for males. *P = 0.004. BPA, bisphenol A; EE, ethinyl estradiol.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Percentage of time spent walking and remaining still. (a) Percentage of time spent walking for females. (b) Percentage of time spent walking for males. (c) Percentage of time spent remaining still for females. (d) Percentage of time spent remaining still for males. *P = 0.009, **P = 0.03. BPA, bisphenol A; EE, ethinyl estradiol.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Percentage of time and total hours spent sleeping. (a) Percentage of time spent sleeping for females. (b) Percentage of time spent sleeping for males. (c) Total hours spent asleep for females. (d) Total hours spent asleep for males. *P = 0.04, **P = 0.004. BPA, bisphenol A; EE, ethinyl estradiol.

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