The field of physical medicine and rehabilitation in Israel was developed in different ways. Some services were developed as a part of comprehensive rehabilitation centers like the Loewenstein Hospital and others were developed as a part of specific disciplines, like the Polio-Rehabilitation Center at Assaf Harofeh hospital. Moreover, the various fields of rehabilitation medicine were developed at different rates. The origin of each stemmed from different circumstances. Sometimes they were developed with a direct connection to a national event and sometimes separately. Occasionally, the field was developed as a result of one person's initiation and others as a result of the establishment's recognition of the value and the essentiality of the field. This essay will focus, in a chronological manner, on the development of the medical rehabilitation fields, that took place in the two leading rehabilitation centers in Israel, the Loewenstein Hospital and at Tel Hashomer. These rehabilitation centers were established in Israel close to the establishment of the State of Israel and their activity will be discussed until 1974, the year in which the Israeli society had to deal with the results of the Yom Kippur war, which had drastic implications on rehabilitation medicine.