In bacteria, 2-component regulatory systems (TCSs) are the critical information-processing pathways that link stimuli to specific adaptive responses. Signals perceived by membrane sensors, which are generally histidine kinases, are transmitted by response regulators (RRs) to allow cells to cope rapidly and effectively with environmental challenges. Over the past few decades, genes encoding components of TCSs and their responsive proteins have been identified, crystal structures have been described, and signaling mechanisms have been elucidated. Here, we review recent findings and interesting breakthroughs in bacterial TCS research. Furthermore, we discuss structural features, mechanisms of activation and regulation, and cross-regulation of RRs, with a focus on the largest RR family, OmpR/PhoB, to provide a comprehensive overview of these critically important signaling molecules.
Keywords: 2-component system; OmpR/PhoB family; bacterial signal transduction; famille OmpR/PhoB; response regulator; régulateurs de réponse; système à 2 composants; transduction de signal chez les bactéries.