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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2015 Nov;64(11):1521-9.
doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2015.07.021. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Effects of Pistachios on the Lipid/Lipoprotein Profile, Glycemic Control, Inflammation, and Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Effects of Pistachios on the Lipid/Lipoprotein Profile, Glycemic Control, Inflammation, and Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial

Katherine A Sauder et al. Metabolism. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Objective: The health benefits of regular nut consumption have been well-documented; however, effects on cardiovascular risk in diabetes are emerging. This study examined the effects of daily pistachio consumption on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Materials/methods: We enrolled 30 adults (40-74 years) with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (mean glycated hemoglobin 6.2%) in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2-week run-in period, participants consumed nutritionally-adequate diets with pistachios (contributing 20% of total energy) or without pistachios for 4 weeks each, separated by a 2-week washout. We assessed fasting lipids/lipoproteins, glycemic measures (while fasted and during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test), inflammatory markers, and endothelial function after each diet period.

Results: Total cholesterol and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol were significantly lower (p<0.05) following the pistachio diet (4.00 mmol/L and 4.06 mmol/L, respectively) compared to the control diet (4.15 mmol/L and 4.37 mmol/L, respectively). Triglycerides were significantly lower (p=0.003) following the pistachio diet (1.56 mmol/L) compared to the control diet (1.84 mmol/L). There were no treatment differences in fasting glucose and insulin, but fructosamine was significantly lower (p=0.03) following the pistachio diet (228.5 μmol/l) compared to the control diet (233.5 μmol/l). Inflammatory markers and endothelial function were unchanged.

Conclusion: Daily pistachio consumption can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Our findings support recommendations that individuals with diabetes follow healthy dietary patterns that include nuts.

Keywords: Cholesterol; Endothelial function; Glycemia; Nuts; Pistachios.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
CONSORT diagram of recruitment and study completion. * Of these, 2 developed intolerances to tomatoes and 1 experienced an allergic reaction to pistachios. It was confirmed that this participant reported no history of nut allergies prior to study enrollment, but during questioning that followed the allergic reaction, this participant stated he had not previously eaten pistachios. Reprinted from Journal of the American Heart Association volume 3 issue 4, Sauder et al., Pistachio nut consumption modifies systemic hemodynamics, increases heart rate variability, and reduces ambulatory blood pressure in well-controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial, 2014, under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license.

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